IONS AND HUMIDITY

IONS AND HUMIDITY
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, NM
May 26 2005

 

It is thought that the graph shown on this page may well be at the core of the aerosol operations. This graph shows direct ion measurements in combination with historical humidity data during the past month. The graph shows what appear to be highly favored conditions for the conduct of the aerosol operations or the transport of aerosol banks within a region. Aerosol operations are being staged at specific times of low humidity and low negative ion count. These two tenets, that of humidity association and ionic manipulation, have been at the foundation of the aerosol research since the early days of investigation. The current research has refined itself until the specific conditions that are favorable to operation may have been largely identified.

 

There is information available to indicate that the ionic constitution of the lower atmosphere may be considered as a security issue.No direct legal infringements are known. This researcher makes the claim that environmental monitoring and environmental reporting of all types is a basic right of the citizen; this right is asserted with the presentation of this report to the public.

 

It is recommended that this page be widely copied, circulated and distributed as rapidly as possible through all means available. It is further advised that the general public openly and overtly participate in this process of disclosure and confrontation of environmental modification. There are significant health aspects, amongst many other profound geophysical considerations, implicit in this data that is presented. Multiple and broader studies of ionic magnitudes and variations in the lower atmosphere are of immediate value. If the current lower atmosphere ionic research is interfered with in any way, it is requested that others dedicate themselves to the task immediately behind.

 

ions and humidity

 

 

The interpretation of this data will lead to additional questions.There is also additional data that can and will be presented if circumstances of time permit. This data will portray extreme variations in ionic counts, both positive and negative, as well as extreme variations with positive to negative ion ratios.  As has been suspected, it appears that nature is being tampered with in very serious ways.

 

Caution is advised in advancing to hasty conclusions or misstatements with regard to ion concentrations, or in changes with respect to ion concentrations. Ion concentration is tied in directly to the electrical nature of the atmosphere and the earth, and this is a complex subject. It is far too simplistic to characterize certain ions as “good” or “bad”; it is the balance of nature that is to be understood. It seems quite fair to state at this stage that the balances of nature are being upset with artificial methods that threaten the viability of life on this planet.

 

A very general interpretation of the current data can be made as follows: Low humidity is a period of relatively low moisture in the atmosphere. A low negative ion count is also generally indicative of lower moisture levels in the atmosphere. The research indicates that both of these variables, taken together, serve to indicate likely periods of aircraft aerosol or aerosol bank operations. This finding may appear to be in contradiction to the humidity conditions that have been associated with the operations, but in reality they are not contradictory in any fashion. Certainly what is in direct contradiction is the infamous claim by the EPA, FAA, and NASA in the so-called “fact sheet” that purports to explain the “persistence” of trails during periods of “high relative humidity”. It is a point of fact that the exact environmental conditions of the “fact sheet”  are never specified in detail; the wording has always remained ambiguous, albeit intentional or not.

 

The data is showing exactly the opposite occurrence, and that is that the operations themselves appear to be conducted at strategic and specific environmental conditions of lower humidity and lower negative ion count – at least in this region of the country. It is important to emphasize this statement relates to the actual occurrence of the operations; not the time before the operation, and not the time after the operation. In fact, it is expected that moisture levels in the atmosphere are likely, if not expected, to increase before and after the operations.Previous predictive models by this researcher have borne out this conclusion, and that is that the operations are known to commonly occur IN ADVANCE of approaching moisture. That conclusion also remains valid to this day and is not changed by the presence of the current data. This researcher is aware of potential differences in ground observations and higher altitude observations; both have been investigated, and the use of ground data in this project can not be used to nullify any claims or observations that are being made here.

 

At this point it appears reasonable to conclude that high moisture content in the atmosphere and a high negative ion count (often associated with increased moisture) are not particularly favorable for the actual conduct of the operations.  Pre and post operative environmental conditions are an entirely different matter that deserve separate and independent study.

 

Another observation that can be made is that the enterprise appears to be extremely successful in identifying local minimums of lower humidity-negative ion combinations.  This indicates advanced capabilities in differential and predictive meteorological and conductivity modeling techniques.  

 

The value of the current report is that very specific environmental conditions favorable to the actual conduct of an aerosol operation appear to be identified. The two variables of humidity and negative ion count appear to go a long way in assessing the likelihood of such operations taking place. Both variables are given equal weight in their importance at this time, and neither of the two variables can be disregarded or ignored. Considerable pattern analysis and model development has taken place to reach this assessment. It is reasonable to suspect that the agendas of the operations, as they have been and as they continue to be determined, are enhanced if the operations are conducted under the specific environmental conditions that are now under identification. Thoughtful analysis will continue to direct that future research.  Confrontation to the point of initiating a global moratorium on the operations is required in the interim.

 

There remains much more to be stated on the measurements that have been taken with respect to positive ion counts, total ion counts and positive to negative ion ratios.  The ionic effects of the full moon are also worthy of discussion. This will have to take place at a later time. The mathematical specifics of the model that has been developed to isolate the current pattern can also be discussed at a later time. The current work is offered such that the process of analysis and interpretation can begin without hesitation.

Clifford E Carnicom
May 26, 2005

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS
Clifford E Carnicom
Dec 13 2003
Edited Dec 17 2003

CORE TRANSLATIONS:

A summary of preliminary findings is presented; adequate time for full presentation and documentation of efforts does not exist at this time. The focus of current research is upon the geophysical and energy implications of the aerosol operations.

Analysis of time deviations over a five month period continues to indicate the very real possibility of a decrease in the rotational rate of the earth. An analysis of historical data from the U.S. Naval Observatory and the International Earth Rotation Service justifies the pursuit of this topic. The variations within the historical data are statistically significant to an extremely high level. More recent research indicates not only the possibility of a measurable deceleration component, but of a non-linear component as well. The prospect of a increasing deceleration component is therefore under serious consideration, and it remains supported by all independently available data from this researcher. Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth, and geophysical events of greater magnitude and disturbance are expected as a result. The data indicates the possibility of increasing differences of time (rotational vs. atomic standards) with projected geophysical effects.

Initial investigations have been conducted on historical Schumann frequency data. The data indicates an increase in this frequency over the recent period of several years that has been examined. Popularly circulated stated changes of the Schumann frequency on the order of several hertz appear to be completely unsubstantiated. Changes on the order of a a fraction of a hertz from a reference value of approximately 7.8Hz are realistically under consideration. The literature shows a measured relationship between changes in Schumann frequency and the electron density of the ionosphere. A reasonable interpretation of the increase in the Schumann frequency results from an increase in electron density of both the atmosphere and the lower atmosphere as a primary objective of the aerosol operations. A conservative first estimate of the increase in electron density is on the order of 8% over the last five years; small changes in electron density dramatically alter the electromagnetic characteristics of a plasma. The remarkable electromagnetic properties of the ionosphere are evidence of that fact.

Energy levels of the HAARP facility act a level commensurate with solar storms. It is expected that the HAARP facility can therefore effect a global geophysical impact, including both electron density and energy state changes of the ionosphere and atmosphere.

Increased solar energy, e.g., from solar storms, and increased moisture are expected to enhance the intended effects of energy accumulation of the aerosol operations. The onset of operations in a particular region appear often to be predictable from the consideration of these and other factors, including aerosol concentration levels.

Changes in mass and kinetic energy are related through the equations of special relativity. Changes in mass will have an effect upon the gravitational field. Expected changes in the gravitational field from historical kinetic energy changes alone appear to be too low for detection with customary instrumentation by a factor of approximately 1 in 100,000. At a conceptual level, a decrease in the rotational rate of the earth is expected to produce a decrease in the gravitational field. Dimensional changes in the earth and mass displacements may act at a measurable level; GRACE satellite data may be a useful source of information for continued analysis.

Atmospheric pressure is expected to decrease, although the level of detection by instrumentation remains in question.

The expected increase in the radius of the earth as a result of decreasing angular momentum of the earth has previously been discussed.

There appears to be a strong relationship between the mass of a body, the angular velocity and the magnetic field strength at a macroscopic level. The foundation of this study indicates that the magnetic field strength is (commonly to one order of magnitude) proportional to the product of the mass and the square of the angular velocity of that body. The study is based upon data available from solar system measurements. This initial examination opens many prospects for the consideration of relationships between mass, gravity, magnetism, electromagnetics, velocity, momentum and kinetic energy, relativity dilations and quantum physics. The origin of ferromagnetism as a direct result of electron spin can not be ignored in conjunction with this finding. The general principle of magnetism as a result of mass in motion is also a derivative of this result. The magnetic field of the earth is expected, therefore, to continue to decrease with any decrease in the rotational rate of the earth.

Magnetic field variation in correspondence with solar flux variation appears to be easily measurable with fairly simple equipment. The variation with respect to aerosol operations, ELF-VLF propagation and astronomic events such as eclipses remains difficult to quantify.

Unusually high levels of ferromagnetism appear to be evident. The simulation of the conditions that best appear to reproduce this result include the removal of the ferromagnetism through heat, and the subsequent exposure of the material, e.g., steel, to high level magnetic fields. Artificial magnetic fields are a consideration in that result.

An estimate of the decline in the earth’s magnetic field strength as a function of a decrease in the earth’s rotational rate has been developed. Computations from the relationship indicate that this decline in magnetic field strength is a measureable amount, even by historical rates of changes in the earth’s rotational rate. If the rotational rate declines beyond historical standards, the magnitude only makes this decline in magnetic field strength easier to detect. An estimate as to when the magnetic field strength declines to zero is also available from the relationship that has been developed.

A relationship between the decline in magnetic field strength with respect to a decline in the gravity field has also been developed at a first level of approximation. The magnitude of this change does not appear to be measurable.

A hypothesis of a fundamental geophysical motive of the aerosol operations does remain under serious consideration. The fundamental question exists as to whether or not it is feasible that the aerosol operations could affect the kinetic energy state of the earth. A mechanism of energy interaction is under review at this time. An examination of the energy density of a plasma, applied to the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere in particular, underlies the physics of this study. Analysis does indicate that is feasible to consider the prospect of an energized atmospheric plasma that exceeds the energy quota from kinetic energy changes in the earth. One method for increasing the energy state of the plasma involves the slow modulation of a high-frequency wave within the plasma, with the fundamental factor of influence being the ratio of the square of the plasma frequency to the square of the modulated frequency. Continued measurements support the existence of omnipresent ELF propagation at multiples of 4Hz. The fundamental objectives and methods of the HAARP facility can not be ignored in this analysis. A central question which remains is that of energy conversion efficiency; current analysis indicates that a conversion efficiency on the order of 10-6 (first estimate) is required between any kinetic energy changes of the earth and kinetic energy accumulated within the plasma of the atmosphere/ionosphere with an approximate plasma frequency of 3MHz modulated with ELF at 100Hz.. For interest sake, the conversion efficiency of the HAARP facility for ELF propagation is stated to be on the order of 10-8. An analysis of the time data indicates that a failure of affecting the kinetic energy state of the earth remains in effect, if indeed this exists as one viable motive of the aerosol operations,

All previously discussed applications of the aerosol operations, including environmental control, biological operations, electromagnetic operations, military operations and geophysical considerations remain substantiated with the research that has been conducted.

The consideration of directed biological operations upon the populace remains paramount. All factors discussed on this and previous pages act in a cumulative sense. There is no implied or stated act or motive of benevolence to the general human population within this research presentation.


Clifford E Carnicom
Dec 13, 2003
Edited Dec 17, 2003

RESEARCH TRENDS AND APPEALS

RESEARCH TRENDS AND APPEALS
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 26 2003
Edited Dec 02 2003

Research into the aerosol operations is currently focused upon the geophysical energy implications of a changing earth momentum, solar energy influx and artificial energy sources of great magnitude, such as the HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) facility. Attention is devoted to the examination of primary geophysical fields of the earth, including but not limited to kinetic energy, mass, gravitation, atmospheric and magnetic changes and their potential association with the aerosol operations. The impact of such energy changes and sources upon biological systems must also be examined.

There is an equivalence of energy levels between the HAARP facility and that which results from high solar storm activity. This finding affirms the proposition that the HAARP facility is expected to have a global impact upon the energy state of the earth.

The consequences of directed biological operations upon the populace must also be considered as an element of legitimate concern and alarm.

Limited time and resources are available to conduct the necessary studies and proposals for research. Certain studies require extended time and effort to complete. Work is conducted and presented to the public as circumstances permit.

High level research and activism in numerous scientific and social disciplines by independent professionals (e.g, medicine, health, biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, genetic engineering, nuclear physics, quantum physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, geophysics, electromagnetics, electrical engineering, meteorology, environmental testing, international law, media, journalism, funding and investment, non-profit administrators, marketing, international lobbyists and political activism, international law and advocacy, etc.) acting on behalf of the public interest at a national or global level remains under solicitation.

It is expected that governmental services should fulfill the majority of the above requirements when a case for environmental and biological peril exists; the current state of affairs demonstrates an abysmal failure of governments to serve that duty. It is therefore required that independent, private and non-profit interests assume that role. It is not wise to think that unlimited time for organization of these efforts exists, and that there will be no consequence if the operations do not cease.


Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 26 2003

DECELERATION CONTINUES

DECELERATION CONTINUES
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 08 2003
Edited Nov 14 2003

A detailed statistical analysis of time over a period of four months continues to support the hypothesis of an earth in a state of deceleration. The magnitude of the deceleration, if confirmed, is sufficient to anticipate unusual geophysical activity in the foreseeable future.

The magnitude of the deceleration is currently best estimated at approximately 0.3 milliseconds per day. Any deceleration component of rotation of the earth is to be regarded with the greatest of interest, as an apparent small acceleration (deceleration) will result in significant velocity differentials and accumulated time differentials over a relatively short period of time if sustained. A deceleration component of 0.3 milliseconds per day will result in a velocity change of approximately 0.1 seconds per day at the end of a one year period. This same deceleration component would lead to an accumulated difference of approximately 20 seconds of time after a one year period. These are phenomenal magnitudes relative to any historical basis that is available.

Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth. One second of time change per year corresponds roughly to the energy contained within all of the fossil fuels of the earth. Data under collection and analysis indicates that a significant multiple of the historical level of approximately one second per year may now be occurring. This indicates the prospect of significant energy and subsequent geophysical changes occurring in future times.

Further data that is accumulated with additional timepieces over a greater interval of time will continue to clarify the findings that are under examination. The independent time system now consists of 14 quartz clocks with measurements on a regular basis. The deceleration bias that is under detection remains thus far regardless of the subset of timepieces examined or of the interval over which a constant rate of rotation is assumed.

Readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time ,Time, Energy and Earth Changes, The Waistline of Rotation, and Time and Rotation Changes Sustained.

Additional notes related to the computation of time differences are presented below.



The following table presents an example spreadsheet statistical analysis of an independent timekeeping system using 8-14 quartz clocks over a four month period. The column descriptions and weighting functions will be described in more detail below.

 

n

rirms^2

racc^2

di

do

ai

bi

delta d

Weights

Unweighted
Errors

%

SET 1

4

0.92

0.87

122.4

74.5

0.000286

-0.022

365

5.0E+09

27.6

-9.67

0.79

-1.6

18.8

9.4E+10

75.97

SET 6

4

0.77

0.54

64.9

61.9

0.000258

-0.016

365

3.7E+06

23.5

-6.83

0.49

-1.0

17.1

6.4E+07

0.06

SET 3

4

0.98

0.96

122.4

105.4

0.000512

-0.054

365

1.5E+09

56.7

-25.40

2.84

-5.7

34.1

5.1E+10

22.57

SET 4

4

0.82

0.7

64.9

48.8

0.000300

-0.014

365

9.2E+07

25.7

-5.79

0.36

-0.7

20.3

1.9E+09

1.40

SET 5

4

0.81

0.47

64.9

55.3

0.000232

-0.012

365

2.8E+07

20.5

-5.04

0.36

-0.7

15.8

4.4E+08

1.84

t11

1

0.12

0.21

59.8

50.2

0.000203

-0.008

365

3.5E+05

17.5

-3.32

0.26

-0.4

14.3

5.0E+06

0.02

Wgt.

22.2

Total

Seconds

Error

6

4.2E+01

0.833

1.0E+00

var

7.1

sigma

2.7

E90

4.4

Lower

17.8

Upper

26.6

Additional notes on columns and weighting factors:

Column 1 :

The set number.

Column 2 : n

The number of clocks in the set.

Column 3 : rirms2

The root mean square (RMS) of the r2 correlation coefficients of the clocks within a set. The linear regressions within the set model the drift rate of the individual clocks. No variation in the rate of the rotation of the earth is assumed over the interval of the regression.

The model for each clock is of the form: Drift rate per day in seconds (DRo) = a1d + b1 where d is the number of days since the point of synchronization with UTC for each clock. The coefficients of the regression are a1 and b1. At d = do, no variation in the rotational rate of the earth is assumed, and the coefficients of the regression and the correlation coefficients are computed for each clock at that point in time.

Column 4 : racc2

The RMS of the r2 correlation coefficients of the linear regressions of the non-linear components of the clocks within a set. The determination of this value is as follows:

DRo is applied to a measured drift rate at d >= do by subtraction. In other words, the effect from assuming a constant rotation rate of the earth is applied to a measured drift rate at all times exceeding do. Therefore, the non-linear component of the drift rate is modeled by DR1i = DRmeasured – DRo at d >= do. A linear regression is then solved for the mean of the non-linear components of the drift rates for each clock, after the mean of the non-linear components is subtracted at d = do. An attempt is therefore made to remove any bias of the set resulting from a non-linear component of the drift rate. The model for each clock is therefore DR1 = a2d + b2 where DR1 represents the mean of the non-linear components minus the mean of the non-linear components at d = do, to be computed at d >= do. The coefficients of regression are a2 and b2.

Column 5 : di

The day number at which the complete error analysis is computed. A condition of computation is that di >= do. This day number is the number of days that has elapsed since the point of synchronization with UTC for each clock, or subset of clocks that have been synchronized on the same day within a relatively short interval of time.

Column 6 : do

The day number at which it is assumed that the rotation rate of the earth is constant, that the drift rate for each clock can be adequately modeled by linear regression, that the correlation coefficients measure the success of the modeling process, and at which the reference drift rate function for each clock is therefore determined.

Columns 7 and 8: ai, bi

The coefficients of regression for the non-linear terms for each set of clocks as described for column 4. The ai term can be interpreted as a bias in the change of the difference between a measured drift rate and a modeled drift rate at any point where d >= do. It can therefore be interpreted as an acceleration component of time, measured in units of seconds per day. If the congregation of timepieces demonstrated random non-linear variations, no aggregate bias (statistical signing) in these coefficients would be evident.

Column 9 : delta d

The number of days after d = do in which the projected and accumulated time differences are determined. A value of 365 corresponds to the projected time differences at the end of a one year period past the point of d = do. Assuming a constant acceleration rate, both velocity and accumulated time differentials can be derived.

Column 10 : Weights

The weighting factor applied to the determination of the total time differential accumulated at d >= do. This factor is currently computed as:

wi = n * rirms2 * racc2 * di * do2 * (di – do)2

Column 11 : First term of accumulated time difference function:

The first term of the accumulated time difference function determined as:

t1 =( ai*((delta d) + do)2) / 2

Column 12 : Second term of accumulated time difference function:

The second term of the accumulated time difference function determined as:

t2 = bi* ( (delta d) + do)

Column 13 : Third term of accumulated time difference function:

The third term of the accumulated time difference function determined as:

t3 =( ai*(do)2) / 2

Column 14 : Fourth term of accumulated time difference function:

The fourth term of the accumulated time difference function determined as:

t4 = bi* do

Column 15: The accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

TE = t1 + t2 – t3 – t4

Column 16 : The contributions to the numerator of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference, determined as:

Weighted Average (contribution to numerator) = wi * TEi

Column 17 : The contribution of the weight factors expressed as a percentage of the sum total of the weights.

 

Individual Entries to the spreadsheet are described as follows:

1. Wgt. Total Error : The weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

Wgt. Total Error = ( sum (wi * TEi) ) / sum (wi)

2. var: The weighted variance of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

var = ( sum ( ( wi %) * ( TEi – Weighted Average) ) ) / ( ( ( n -1 ) / n ) * sum ( wi% ) )

where wi% are the weights expressed as a percentage / 100.

3. sigma : the weighted standard error of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

sigma = sqrt (var)

4. E90 : the 90th percentile error estimate of the weighted standard error of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

E90 = 1.6449 * sigma

5. Lower : the lower E90 confidence limit of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

Lower = weighted average – E90

6. Upper : the upper E90 confidence limit of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as:

Upper = weighted average + E90

TIME & ROTATION CHANGES SUSTAINED

TIME & ROTATION CHANGES SUSTAINED
Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 25 2003

Careful measurements and extensive statistical analysis have been conducted for 110 days in an effort to determine if anomalous variations in time exist. These variations, if they are demonstrated to exist, translate directly into anomalous variations in the rotational rate of the earth. This project is ongoing and requires extensive data to evaluate any hypotheses that are currently under examination. A limitation on the quality of timepieces available inhibits a more direct and ready interpretation of the data under collection. Atomic time systems of the highest order, if available, would facilitate the process. Independence from claimed authoritative sources of data is now also required.

This report remains of a preliminary nature. Eight quartz clocks currently comprise the timekeeping system, and additional clocks will continue to be incorporated into the measurement system. Two to three months of additional data beyond that which has been collected will likely determine if the project remains warranted.

This paper is to provide notice that all data collected thus far during the last four months continues to support the existence of anomalous time variations, and subsequently, anomalous earth rotational changes. Efforts are now directed towards the detection of an acceleration component (actually, a deceleration). All data collected thus far continues to support the hypothesis of the existence of the slowing of the rate of rotation of the earth.

The act of data collection and analysis requires patience. Extensive data is required for the proper analysis of the problem. Although this report remains preliminary, a bias of an acceleration (deceleration) is under analysis at this time.

Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth. One second of time change per year corresponds roughly to the energy contained within all of the fossil fuels of the earth. Data under collection and analysis indicates that a significant multiple of the historical level of approximately one second per year may now be occurring. This indicates the prospect of significant energy and subsequent geophysical changes occurring in future times.

Readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time and Time, Energy and Earth Changes, and The Waistline of Rotation.

THE WAISTLINE OF ROTATION

THE WAISTLINE OF ROTATION
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 14 2003

A decrease in the rotational rate of the earth is expected to increase the equatorial radius of the earth.  This postulate can be demonstrated by two different methods.  The first of these examines the kinetic energy and inertial momentum of the earth as it relates to differentials, and the second will examine the problem from the viewpoint of conservation of angular momentum.  It can be shown that the results expected are similar in each case, where a change of one second per year in the rotational rate of the earth leads to an expected increase in the earth’s radius of approximately 4 to 8 inches.  Greater changes in the rotational rate (current observations support a change of 12 seconds per year) result in correspondingly greater changes in the equatorial radius of the earth.

In conjunction with anomalous variations in time that are currently being reported, there is the recollection of a popular science article published by CNN on August 7, 2002 entitled, Earth’s Waistline Could Be Expanding.  This account summarizes an article published in Science magazine in that same week, where the following excerpts from the CNN article are provided as follows:

“The Earth’s gravity field has bulged more in the middle in the past four years and scientists suspect that the same is true for the planet itself.”

“The researchers say neither rising global sea levels nor faster glacial ice melting could produce such a sharp change in the gravity field measurements. Something else is moving mass from the high latitudes to the low latitudes nearer the Equator, causing a suspected bigger bulge around the middle”.

“While understanding the precise shape of our planet and its gravity field may seem like esoteric endeavors, the data could have a profound impact on everything from weather forecasting to agriculture to making sure there is enough fresh water to support life.”

It will be of further interest to examine the magnitude of this change within contemporary ellipsoid models that incorporate this latest data, and as it is reported in the Science journal. It is also of interest that the earth change recorded is noted primarily within the last four to five years; readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time and Time, Energy and Earth Changes.

The question of rotational rate change as it corresponds to earth shape changes is to be equally considered, as there now is observational data available to support the existence of both.  In addition to these considerations, a discussion has been provided on the expected tremendous kinetic energy changes (and expected geophysical changes that result) associated with small changes in the earth’s rotational rate, i.e., time.

Additional fields that are under further examination include the magnetic field of the earth, either natural or affected artificially, the gravity field and the atmospheric pressure of the earth.  The current work assumes a homogeneous sphere as a first approximation to the problem.

The remainder of this article is mathematical in nature, and will be provided below to those with a further interest.

 


Let us examine the differential method first.

The kinetic energy of the rotating earth can be approximated as1:

KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 5) * m * R2 * w2

where KEr represents the kinetic energy of the rotating earth in Joules, m represents the mass of the earth in kilograms, R is the radius of as assumed spherical earth in meters, and w is the rotational rate of the earth in radians per second.

Let us solve this form for R:

R2 = ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 )

or

R = ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 ) )1/2

therefore:

dR / dw = ( 1 / 2) * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 )-1/2 * (-2) * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / m ) * w-3

or in differential form:

dR = ( ( -5 * KEr ) / ( m * w3 ) )  * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2) )-1/2 * dw

and substituting the values previously established2, where

The mass of the earth is approximately 5.98E24 kg.

The mean radius of the earth is approximately 6371km.

The rotational rate of the earth, w (approx) = 7.272E-5 rad / sec.

KEr (approx) = 2.567E29 Joules.

and dw in this case will the rotational rate change corresponding to a time change (decrease) of one second in one year:

dw = -( 1 / 365) * ( 1 / 86400 ) * 7.272E-5 rad /sec.

or

dw = -2.306E-12 rad / sec.

this results in:

dR = -5.581E17 * (1.57E-7) * -2.306E-12 rad /sec.

leads to

dR = .202 meters

or

dR = 8 inches (approximate) increase corresponding to a one second time differential within one year.

Increases in time differentials beyond one second per year will lead to corresponding increases in the earth radius. Note: current observations indicate a time differential of approximately 12 seconds per year.

For the second method of estimating the increase in the radius of the earth that corresponds to a decrease in the rotational rate, let us use the principle of conservation of angular momentum.  The reader is referred to problem number 341 of Fogiel3 for the necessary background in the formulation of this approach.

In our case, we are led to:

wf= wo / ( 1 –  ( dx% / 100 ) )2

where wf is equal to the decreased angular velocity, wo is the original angular velocity, and dx% is the change in the radius of the earth in terms of per cent.

or

dx% / 100 = 1 – (wo / wf)1/2

And if we again let dw correspond to a change of one second in one year, we have

wf = wo – dw

where wo = 7.272E-5 rad / sec.

and

wf = 7.272E-5 rad/sec – 2.306E-12 rad /sec.

then

wf = 7.27199769E-5 rad / sec.

then

dx% / 100 = 1.59E-8

and the change in the radius of the earth will be:

dR = R * (dx% / 100) = 6371E3 meters * 1.59E-8 = .101 meters = 4 inches (approximate).

We are therefore led to a similar result as with the differential approach, with an estimated range of 4 to 8 inches increase in the equatorial radius per second per year. Any corrections will be made to this paper as is appropriate in the future.

Clifford E Carnicom
Authored at Jemez Falls, NM
Sep 14 2003 

 

References:

1. Clifford E Carnicom, Time, Energy and Earth Changes, Time, Energy and Earth Changes, 2003.
2. Carnicom, 2003.
3. Dr. M. Fogiel, Problem Solvers Physics, (Research and Education Association, 2000), 344.

TIME, ENERGY AND EARTH CHANGES

TIME, ENERGY AND EARTH CHANGES
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 26 2003

A preliminary relationship has been determined between any anomalies in time that may occur, the associated change in the kinetic energy of the earth, and the projected magnitude of any such changes on a geophysical level. The result of this study indicates that small changes in “time” will manifest themselves as tremendous changes in the energy state of the earth and that they are likely to have a significant geophysical impact. It is therefore valuable to the general public to determine if any aberrations in the recording of “time” are indeed occurring, and readers are referred to previous articles entitled Time and Time To Start Watching Time in that pursuit.

The details of this study are mathematical in nature, and are presented below.

 


The spinning of the earth is one method by which time is recorded. If time (UT based upon the rotational rate of the earth) were to vary in an anomalous fashion, this would also indicate anomalous variations in the rotational rate of the earth. The spinning of the earth also results in a certain level of kinetic energy of the earth. Any changes in time, however small, are reflected in the kinetic energy of the earth. The question here is, what is the change in energy of the earth that occurs with a corresponding change in time that is based upon that same rotation of the earth?

The kinetic energy of any spinning body around an axis is given as ( 1 / 2) I w2, where I is the moment of inertia of the body and w is the rotational rate of that body1. As a first approximation to our problem, let us assume the earth as a homogeneous sphere, where the moment of inertia is ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 where m is the mass of the earth in kilograms and R is the radius in meters2.

Therefore, the kinetic energy resulting from the spin of the earth can be approximated as:

KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 2) ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 * w2

The mass of the earth is approximately 5.98E24 kg.3

The mean radius of the earth is approximately 6371km.

The rotational rate of the earth, w can be determined approximately as:

w (approx.) = ( 2 * pi ) / 86400 radians / second, where 86400 represents the number of seconds in a day of 24 hours, and in this case,

w (approx) = 7.272E-5 rad / sec.

Therefore, the kinetic energy that results from the spin of the earth can be estimated as:

KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 2) ( 2 / 5) * 5.98E24kg * ( 6371E3m )2 * (7.272E-5 rad / sec)2

KEr (approx) = 2.567E29 Joules.

This values agrees extremely well with a tabulated list of energy phenomenon reported by Syracuse University Department of Physics5, where it is reported the the kinetic energy of the spinning earth is on the order of 1029. This list is valuable to give the reader a sense of scale and magnitude on this problem, and special interest is devoted to the subsection entitled, Rough Values of the Energies of Various Occurrences. The range of phenomenon included extends from the creation of the universe to the spinning of the earth to the energy of a single molecule.

The next question to ask is, what impact would there be upon the kinetic energy of the spinning earth if the rotational rate was decreased by an interval of one second within a unit of time. We can begin the process by assuming a one second change within a time period of one day, and this can be modified appropriately at a later time.

For this problem, we will use the following differential relationship:

dKEr / dw = 2 * ( 1 / 2) * ( 2 / 5 ) m * R2 * w

or

dKEr / dw = ( 2 /5 ) * m * R2 * w

or

dKEr = ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 * w * dw

and in this case, we will establish dw as the change in rotational rate of the earth caused from a one second change in a 24 hour period, or

dw = ( 1 / 86400) * 7.272E-5 rad / sec

dw = 8.417E-10 rad / sec

Therefore, the change in rotational kinetic energy in this case would be

dKEr = ( 2 /5) * m * R2 * w * 8.417E-10 rad / sec

dKEr = 5.943E24 Joules

Alternatively, if the change of one second were to occur over an interval of one year, we have approximately

dKEr365 = 5.943E24 Joules / 365 days = 1.628E22 Joules / day

and if the change of one second were to occur over a 45 day period (current examinations in progress), we have approximately

dKEr45 = 5.943E24 Joules / 45 days = 1.318E23 Joules / day.

The end result of this study is that a one second change in the rotational rate of the earth during the ranges of time under consideration is on the order of 1022 to 1023 Joules. This exists as a tremendous amount of energy in a transformational state. If we refer to the Syracuse University study above, we find that that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction theory metorite is on the order of 1023. We also find that the energy available from the earth’s fossil fuels is on the order of 1023.

This study informs us that relatively small changes in the rotational rate of the earth have a potentially great impact upon the energy transformation processes within the earth and earth – celestial system. Even though the change in time may, on the surface, appear to be miniscule in nature, the opposite is in fact true because of the tremendous mass and kinetic energy inherent in the rotating earth.

Readers may also wish to become familiar with a popular science report issued Aug 7 2002 by CNN entitled, Earth’s Waistline Could Be Expanding. A investigative study of earth – mass changes with respect to rotational changes will be discussed in the future based upon the release of this article.

Any revisions or changes will be made to this report as is appropriate.

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 26 2003.


References:

1. Dr. M. Fogiel, Problem Solvers Physics, (Research and Education Association, 2000), 250.
2. Fogiel, 344.

3. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook, (Addison – Wesley Publishers Limited, 1997), 213.
4. Petr Vanicek, Geodesy, The Concepts, (Elvier Science Publishing Co., 1986), 105.
5. Rough Values of Power of Various Processes, (http://physics.syr.edu/courses/modules/ENERGY/ENERGY_POLICY/tables.html)

TIME TO START WATCHING TIME

TIME TO START WATCHING TIME
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 14 2003
Edited Aug 17 2003
Edited Sep 03 2003

Additional Note on Sep 02 2003:

Drift rate analysis of the independent time standard that has been developed now shows a departure of 1.5 seconds over a period of 57 days since the monitoring of time standards began. This indicates the detection of another 0.5 second additional departure since Aug 17 2003. A projection of the current time departure rate is estimated at 9.5 seconds per year; a departure of this magnitude is phenomenal in magnitude if these observations bear out in the future. A one second departure (approximately) over a year period is expected based upon the historical record. A careful monitoring of geophysical events and changes is recommended based upon this preliminary report, as unusual changes in time will likely correlate with significant geophysical energy releases. The likelihood of random errors has diminished since all UCT time differences being measured are of the same sign. No errors in the processing of the data have been discovered. All five clocks in the independent time standard are now modeled with least squares linear drift rates, and these have been revised accordingly in the table below. Readers are referred to the paper entitled Time, Energy and Earth Changes to assess the potential geophysical impact of small time differences that have been observed and reported. The number of clocks being used in the independent time standard will increase in the future. The estimated RMS error in the independent time standard drift rates is approximately 0.1 to 0.2 seconds / month. This monitoring project commenced at 2320 MDT on 070803.


Additional Note on Aug 17 2003:

All indications are that another 0.5 seconds has been added to UTC between 0930 MDT on 081603 and 1200 MDT on 081703. This reaffirms the need for independent time standards to be established by researchers that wish to monitor this investigation. No errors in processing of the data have been discovered.

 



There appears to be the possibility that undocumented revisions to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) may be occurring. This report is preliminary, and continued efforts are being made to determine if any errors of process have occurred. Additional observers are called for to monitor and establish independent time references from the national and international sources that are available to the public. This finding, if verified, leads to geophysical questions of planetary significance, since UTC is based upon the rotation rate of the earth. Undocumented revisions to this time standard, if they are occurring, are of great importance. This study is investigative and final conclusions are not appropriate at this time.

It has already been determined that the variations between the atomic time standard (TA1) and UTC since the beginning of 1999 are statistically extraordinary. Readers are referred to an earlier paper on the issue of time and various hypotheses that are under consideration. Attention has also been called to a most unusual “stair-step” pattern in the post 1999 data which is visible in the graph below. Any unusual variations in the difference between atomic time (TA1) and UTC can be interpreted as anomalies in the rotational rate of the earth.

TIME TO START WATCHING TIME
“Stair Step” Pattern Visible in Post 1999 Series
Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC
TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth.
X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on Jan 01 1999 and ends on Jul 23 2003
Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory

The data and observations indicate that an undocumented 0.5 second addition to UTC may have been made between 1000 MDT on 081203 and 2300 MDT on 081303. If the observation is correct, it may be interpreted as a “partial” leap second, and the frequency of such an event would be of great importance. The observation does appear as an anomaly, either in the UTC time standard or within the clocks that are being used as an independent time standard. If any errors in the processing are discovered, they will be promptly reported; none have been discovered at this time. It is unlikely that revisions of this nature can be documented unless careful monitoring begins at a broader level, since this would not qualify as a leap second addition (which is normally reported). It is unusual that no documented full leap seconds have been added since Jan 01 1999, and this absence is out of character with the historical record.

A method of recording time has been developed which demonstrates accuracy on the order of .003 – .005 seconds day, or approximately 0.1 seconds per month of elapsed time. This independent standard has been and remains under comparison with UTC, and appears to be able to easily detect any discrete aberrations on the order of 0.5 seconds or more.

The general procedure being used is as follows:

1. Five new digital clocks reading to the second have been acquired. Each clock is carefully synchronized to UTC via WWV at an arbitrary point in time.

2. An automatically updating so-called “atomic” clock has been acquired to serve as an additional time standard. This particular digital clock remains within 1-2 seconds of the WWV time signal regardless of elapsed time due to the updating of the time by radio signal from WWV. This clock is optional but serves as an additional time standard for direct observation. This clock is not used in any of the numerical analysis that has taken place.

3. WWV radio signals will need to be available on a regular basis. These signals can be heard on the shortwave frequencies of 5, 10 and 15 MHz.

4. Drift rates for each clock are regularly determined as the ratio of the error in any one clock as compared to the WWV signal to the elapsed interval in days, assuming that no discrete revisions to UTC have been made during the interval of measurement. Drift rate determinations have been made approximately once per day for a 60+ day period. Errors in the drift rate have been carefully and continually analyzed. All five clocks now use a linear modeling of the drift rate to achieve the same level of accuracy estimated at .002 – .004 seconds per day.

5. Numerous error analysis procedures have been applied to the observational data sets, and all analyses are in accordance with the measured data sets.

6. The drift rates for each clock have been determined over a 57 day period with an estimated RMS error of .002 – .004 seconds /day as follows:

Clock Number

Drift Rate
seconds / day

1

( – 9.1E-4 * elapsed days ) + .177

2

( 2.08E-3 * elapsed days ) + 1.494

3

( – 1.2E-4 * elapsed days ) + 1.949

4

( 1.97E-3 * elapsed days ) + 0.489

5

( – 2.59E-4 * elapsed days ) + 1.159

The error budget on this independent time standard has stabilized at approximately 25 days into the recording process, and has remained so until the period specified of 1000 MDT on 081203 to 2300 MDT on 081303, when a dramatic departure from the established drift rates was observed with an RMS error escalation to approximately .015 seconds.

7. Analysis indicates that the increased error on 081203 to 081303 will result with the introduction of a 0.5 second offset into either the UTC or the five clock independent digital time standard. The latter appears unlikely at this point in time, since all clocks measure relatively equal departures. A projection of the data which includes a 0.5 second offset maintains the drift rates and error budget reported in the table above.

8. Astronomic occultation observations may also be helpful in analyzing any variations in UTC.

9. Work will continue to establish or refute the validity of the observation that has been recorded on this page. Additional researchers will be helpful in this process. The particulars of the observation and calculation methods will be described in greater detail as circumstances require.

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 14 2003

TIME

TIME
Clifford E Carnicom
Jul 23 2003
Edited Jul 24 2003

TIME
Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC
TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth.
X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on May 15 1976 and ends on Jul 23 2003
Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory

Research has been underway for several months to investigate a hypothesis that has been been forwarded to me for evaluation. The source of these propositions will remain unidentified at this time. The hypothesis purports the onset of major geophysical changes and life extinction cycles in the foreseeable and upcoming decades. The impact upon the earth and life from such events is extraordinary and beyond the realm of consideration for many people. There is also a claim of a connection between the aerosol operations and the anticipated geophysical events, and this has formed the basis for the research that is being presented herein. Additional hypotheses are under investigation, (e.g., biological and pharmaceutical) but they will not be be discussed at this point. No judgement on the veracity of these claims is being made, however, certain leads of investigation are being followed to see if they hold up to scrutiny and logic.

ONE such claim being made is that there exists a connection between the anticipated geophysical changes, the rotational rate of the earth and the aerosol operations. It has been stated that there is an attempt to use the aerosols to increase the rotational speed of the earth. This increase is viewed as an offsetting mechanism to the geophysical events which it is claimed will occur. At first response, it might appear that such a claim defies the realms of physical possibility, however, honest research does not allow such a presumption without an adequate investigation. It is also to be understood that no claim of benevolence to the general human population accompanies this description of geophysical manipulation.

There is a well known line by Mr. Carl Sagan, to the effect that, “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” Such is the case here. In my examination of this hypothesis, it appears to me that the central issue of examination drives toward the issue of TIME. If one were to claim that the rotational speed of the earth can be artificially affected, then a closer examination of time should reveal whether that claim has any merit. This would be the case regardless of the role, or non-role, of the aerosol operations. The rationale for this investigation is that TIME has historically evolved as an expression of that very same rotational rate of the earth. It is only with the more recent introduction of time based upon atomic standards that the issue of time has become murkier. Time is not so steady as many of us might presume, and there are now many different ways by which it can be measured. This discussion will be confined to three of these standards of time: TA1 (Atomic time), UT (based on the rotational rate of the earth) and UTC (UT adjusted periodically to keep pace with atomic time).

Small differences in time must now be considered to examine the questions which are before us. The geophysical effects of such small changes must also be considered in the future; initial research indicates that small changes in time (i.e., rotation rate) may lead to significant geophysical stress forces and their release. It also appears that our state of knowledge of earth rotational rate changes and geophysical correlations is quite inadequate.

There is, first of all, a fairly well established recent history that shows the rotational rate of the earth has been slowing down1,2,3. This rate is stated from numerous sources to be on the order of 0.7 to 0.9 seconds per year, and it seems to have held fairly steady since approximately 1900. In the interest of completeness, a graph4 depicting the history back to 1620 does show a period of increased rotational rate in contradiction to the more recent trend. To make matters additionally confusing, most sources that attribute a geophysical process of tidal actions to the slow down speak on the order of milliseconds per century, as opposed to a fraction of a second per year11. The same sources also do not appear to address the contradictions raised by the graphed data extending back to 1620. So there does appear to be many questions as to magnitude and rotational rate increase and decrease that must remain unanswered at this point.

The more immediate question is to ask whether or not it is conceivable that the aerosol operations are affecting the rotational rate of the earth. If this is the case, one would look for variance in the data beginning approximately 4 1/2 years ago as a potential indicator. The data that we should look at is the difference between atomic time (TA1) and the time based upon the rotational rate of the earth (UT). Although it required some labor to extract the data, this information is available from the United States Naval Observatory. In addition, the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) also becomes an important source of information. The graph of this difference expresses any unusual changes that may be taking place with respect to the rotational rate of the earth.

This graph is presented above for your review, and there are some intriguing findings that are to be mentioned.

1. The most recent leap second added to bring UTC (based upon rotational rate of the earth) in closer accordance with atomic time (TA1) occurred on Dec 31 1998. The lack of leap seconds (at the anticipated rate loss of approximately 0.8 seconds year) since that time is very much out of character with the preceding historical data set spanning more than 25 years. This indicates to us that the earth’s rotational rate must have actually increased in more recent years relative to the historical record. As a point of observation only, the aerosol operations are generally understood to have begun at a global level at the close of 1998 and beginning of 1999.

2. The post 1999 change is in contradiction to the numerous sources that claim a fairly steady rotational rate decrease on the order of 0.7 to 0.9 seconds per year.

3. No explanation can be found at this time by IERS as to the abrupt change in leap second additions (decline of) at the beginning of 1999. There have been no leap seconds added since Dec 31 1998, and this is at variance with the regular history preceding this announcement and as shown on the graph from the US Naval Observatory data. It would appear that a leap second addition is inevitable in the near future, after a lapse of 4 1/2 years.

4. The rate of decline (slope) shown within the graph also shows itself to be unique within the time period covered, from 1976 to 2003. The decline (slope) post 1999 is considerably less than that which has preceded.

5. The “stair -step” behavior of the decline rate since 1999 is a most interesting feature of the data. There are 4 periods (and the beginning of a fifth), fairly regularly spaced, where the rotational rate decline temporarily levels off. This pattern also does not appear within the general data set, and it does indicate the possibility of a disturbing mechanism (artificial or otherwise) to the rotation rate.

TIME
“Stair Step” Pattern Visible in Post 1999 Series
Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC
TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth.
X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on Jan 01 1999 and ends on Jul 23 2003
Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory

6. The long term predictions issued by the IERS for the period of 1997 – 2007 indicated that approximately 7 leap seconds were anticipated to be added within the period from 1999 to 2007. However, NO leap seconds have been added (as of this date), i.e., a period of 4 1/2 years have elapsed without any additions. This is out of character with the historical record as well as at odds with the last known predictions of the worldwide time standard service.

7. Curiously, the long term time prediction service of the U.S. Naval Observatory has apparently been discontinued, at least to the public. This is apparently the case with IERS also, as no updates past 1999 for long term predictions have been found. The question is, WHY? Why would a fundamental geophysical service that is important to many human endeavors be eliminated?

8. A statistical test between the means of the daily differences (leap seconds excluded) between the post Jan 01 1999 data and the pre Jan 01 1999 data is significant at the 99.9999+% level12. This test demonstrates that the data after Jan 01 1999 is highly anomalous relative to the previous history. The slope ratio between the two data sets is on the order of 1 to 3, with the post Jan 01 1999 data decreasing at a rate of 1/3 the pre Jan 01 1999 data.
(N1 = 8245, Mean1 = -.00201 secs. / day, sigma1 = .000701; N2 = 1633, Mean2 = -.00067 secs. / day, sigma2 = .000501 : Z = 91.4)

9. If attempts have been made to decrease the rotational rate decline, an analysis of the data would suggest that it may have been only momentarily successful and delaying; a more deeply entrenched geophysical process appears to reign.

In an effort to monitor this issue, this researcher has developed independent time standards. Astronomic occultation observations have been and are being conducted8,9,10, and a digital time standard has been established. The expected error in the astronomic observations is approximately 0.5 seconds, and the digital time reference system has an expected error of approximately 0.2 seconds per month. The insertion of leap seconds can likely be detected independently with these reference frames in place. The difference between UT1 (atomic time) and UTC (based upon rotational rate of the earth and adjusted within tolerance of atomic time) continues to be available to a high level of precision through the U.S. Naval Observatory, and can be monitored by the public.

If one now considers the possibility that the earth’s rotation rate can be artificially affected, the next important step is to ask what physical mechanism can conceivably accomplish this. This will undoubtedly lead toward advanced studies in physics, and at this point I can only make a suggestion as to where such research might lead. The source behind the hypothesis being discussed has stated only that methods of resonance involving sub-atomic particles are the basis of the physical mechanism; no additional specific or detailed information is available.

Any hypothesis that merits serious consideration must stand the tests of cross-examination and hopefully is tenable within the laws of physics and science that we have adopted in this time and place. In an effort to conclude the current discussion and yet prompt the reader with an avenue for further work, I would like to mention the following area of physics which holds some promise for the consideration of resonance as a physical mechanism.

I have acquainted myself with a sub-discipline of physics that is termed “nuclear magnetic resonance”, and it appears to be worthy of additional effort. Nuclear magnetic resonance has developed to become a highly significant branch of modern physics, and is most commonly known within the medical community. The fundamental principle behind nuclear magnetic resonance, as I understand it, is this:

Certain atomic particles, when subjected to radio frequency energy in the presence of a magnetic field, will absorb that energy to cause variations in their sub-atomic spin rates, i.e., the angular rate of rotation of that particle. Energy absorption will occur at resonance if the proper frequencies are used in conjunction with a particular magnetic field strength5,6,7. (Note : the source states that nuclear magnetic resonance is only ancillary to the primary mechanisms which operate at a broader level and with variable energy forms beyond that of radio frequencies).

This principle is clearly under the domain of quantum physics, and as such much work lies before us to fairly evaluate the viability of such a mechanism to operate at a geophysical level. Readers with knowledge of the 4 1/2 years of research embedded within this site may recognize why such a mechanism is to be considered in all seriousness. The apparent anomalies with the earth rotational data, as they have been described above, provide a further impetus for the deeper study ahead of us.


Clifford E Carnicom
Jul 23 2003
Edited Jul 24 2003


Partial References:

1. Rique Pottenger, The American Ephemeris, 2001 to 2010, (ACS Publications, 1997), Table IV.
2. Peter Duffett-Smith, Practical Astronomy With Your Calculator, (Cambridge University Press, 1979), 23.
3. Oliver Montenbruch, Astronomy on the Personal Computer, (Springer, 2000), 41-44.
4. Duffett-Smith, 23.
5. Richard Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, (Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1964), 35-10 to 35-12.

6. David Bohm, Quantum Theory, (Dover, 1979), 501 -505.
7. Daniel Canet, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Concepts and Methods, (John Wiley and Sons, 1996), 3-5.

8. Lunar Occultation Workbench, 3.1 (Software), Dutch Occultation Association.
9. Raymond Davis, Surveying, Theory and Practice, (McGraw Hill, 1981), 482.
10. Montenbruch, 229.
11. Petr Vanicek, Geodesy, The Concepts, (Elvier Science Publishing Co., 1986), 66-69
12. Murray R. Spiegel, Probability and Statistics, (McGraw-Hill, 2000), 228.