A Paper to be Developed During
the Summer of 2016
(Last Edit Jun 20 2016)
“The single most important chemical species in clouds and precipitation is the .. pH value.”
Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry, 1995
Atmosphere, Climate and Change, Thomas Graedel & Paul J. Crutzen
Scientific American Library, 1997
Photo : Carnicom Institute
An analysis of five rainfall samples collected over a period of six months and spanning three states in the western United States has been completed. There are five conclusions that are forthcoming:
1. The rainfall samples studied portray a smorgasbord of contamination. The contaminants appear to be both complex and numerous in nature.
2. There does not appear to be effective or comprehensive monitoring or regulation of the state of air quality, and consequently, rainfall quality in the United States at this time.
3. The results of the current analysis, utilizing more capable equipment and methods, are highly consistent with those that originated from this researcher close to two decades ago.
4. All reasonable requests or demands by the citizenry for the investigation and addressing of this state of affairs over this same time period have been refused or denied.
5. The level of contamination that exists poses both a risk and a threat to health, agriculture, biology, and the welfare of the planet.
Let us now proceed with some of the details.
We can begin with the pH, i.e., the acid or alkaline nature of rainfall. Biochemical reactions take place (or, for that matter, do not take place..) at a specific temperature and pH. If the system or environment for that reaction is disturbed with respect to the acidity and temperature, then the reaction itself is interfered with. If the conditions depart far enough from what is required, the reaction may simply not even take place at all. Such is the risk of interference to the acid-base nature of rainfall, upon which all life on this planet depends.
To be continued.
PART I: SUMMARY VIEW
UV Detector & Lab Equipment Used for Summary View Data
PART II: TRACE METAL ANALYSIS
Electrochemical Signature of Rainwater Tests for Trace Metals
as Determined by Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry
The following metallic elements have been determined to exist, or to be strong candidates to exist, within a series of five rainwater samples that have been tested for trace metals. The samples span three states across the country and six months of time. The method applied is that of Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry. The level of detection for the method is on the order of parts per million (PPM). This list considerably extends the scope of consideration for the future investigation and detection of metallic elements within rainwater. The findings in the upper portion of the table are highly consistent with those under reporting by various laboratories across the country; those in the lower half serve to prompt further investigations into additional elements that are highly related in their properties within the periodic table. An examination of the physical properties of these elements, in detail, will likely provide additional insight into the applications of use for these same elements. It can be noticed that the majority of elements within the list act as reducing agents.
Measured Mean Redox Voltage (Absolute Value)
Actual Redox Voltage (Absolute Value)
1.63, 1.32, 1.24
1.63, 1.31, 1.23
Standard Error of Measurement 0.013 V; n = 15
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here)
Additional Inorganic Analyses:
Qualitative (Color Reagents) Test Results for Combined Rainfall Sample
A Value of 1 Indicates a Positive Test Result
Concentration of RainwaterSample ~15x
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here.)
(Chromium, Cyanide & Iron appear to be at minimal trace levels)
Qualitative Positive Test Examples:
Phosphates, Nitrates, Ammonia, Silica
PART III: BOILING POINT TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS:
Tests to Determine the Boiling Point
for the Concentrate Rainfall Sample Using an Oil Bath
(Contamination is Evident)
PART IV: INFRARED ANALYSIS:
An Organic Extraction Process
(Results subsequently to be examined by Infrared Spectroscopy)
Infrared Spectrum of Rainfall Organic Extraction :
Water Soluble & Insoluble Components
(see previous photo)
(solvent influences removed)
Gas Chromatography (TCD) Applied to Organic Extracts
(tailing from varying polarities)
PART V: BIOLOGICALS
Biologicals Extracted from Rainfall Concentrate Samples
I wish to thank Mr. John Whyte for his dedication and effort to organize and produce an environmental conference in Los Angeles, California during the summer of 2012. Mr. Whyte, in support of the speakers at the conference, provided the means for some of the environmental test equipment used in this report. I also wish to thank the general public for their assistance during this last year in the acquisition of important scientific instrumentation by Carnicom Institute. This report is made possible only by that generosity.
A second rainwater sample has been evaluated. On this occasion, both organic and inorganic attributes of the sample have been examined. Although the sample investigated is of much larger volume, the results demonstrate an essentially equivalent level of aluminum present to that defined within the earlier report, i.e., approximately 2 PPM. This magnitude exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency recommended standards for aluminum in drinking factor by roughly a factor of 10.
In addition, various organic attributes of the sample are introduced within this report.
Concentrated Rain Sample under Study in this Report
Distilled Water Reference on Left, Concentrated Rainfall to Right
Residual Solid Materials from the Rainwater Sample of this Study
The volume of the sample collected is approximately 6.5 liters over a three day heavy storm period, collected in clean containers that are were exposed to open sky. The sample was concentrated by evaporation under modest heat to approximately 6% of the original volume. It is apparent from visual inspection and by visible light spectrometry that the concentrated rainfall sample is not transparent and that it does contain materials to some degree.
Visible light spectrum of the concentrated rainfall sample. The increase in absorption in the lower ranges of visible light correspond to the yellow and yellow-green colors that are observed with the sample.
The pH of the concentrated sample is recorded at 8.5; this value is surprisingly alkaline and indicates the presence of substantial hydroxide ions in solution. The pH of the solution prior to concentration measures at 7.5; this also must be registered as highly alkaline under the circumstances.
The pH of ‘natural’ rain water has been discussed in earlier papers and its relationship to the expected value of 5.7 due to the presence of carbonic acid in the atmosphere (carbon dioxide and water). The departure of natural rainwater from the theoretical neutrality of 7.0 is one aspect of the pH studies that I conducted in conjunction with numerous citizens across the nation some years ago, and these reports remain available. The current finding is remarkably alkaline and, by itself, is indicative of fundamental acid-base change in the chemistry of the atmosphere.
From those early reports, it may be wise to recall the words of Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry (Atmosphere, Climate and Change, 1995), who stated that the most important chemical attribute of precipitation is indeed the pH value. It behooves us, as a species, to act rather quickly on any reasonable claim to a significant change in fundamental atmospheric chemistry that may exist. It must be acknowledged that these same claims now prevail over decades of time, and that any dismissal as an aberration of no consequence is unjustifiably diminutive.
The sample has been examined again for the existence of trace metals using the method of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, as described in the earlier report. The results are essentially identical to that of the earlier report, and once again the signature of a soluble form of aluminum is detected . The sample in this case, however, is of much larger volume, was collected over a longer duration, and was more highly concentrated that that in the preliminary report.
The concentration level was again determined, and the analysis indicates a level of soluble aluminum within the rainwater sample at 2.0 PPM. This compares quite closely with the earlier sample result of approximately 2.4 PPM . This determination once again takes into account the concentration process that has been applied to the sample for testing sensitivity purposes.
Two facts bear repeating here:
First, this value exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for drinking water by roughly a factor of 10, again using the most conservative approach possible that can be taken.
Second, the previously referenced U.S. Geological Survey statement from the year of 1967 is valuable both in relation to evaluating the EPA standards as well as assessing the expectations of aluminum concentrations in natural waters:
There is now a necessity to include an additional aspect of the rainfall analysis that has made its presence known more clearly. This is the case of biologicals. It is a fact, that in addition to the repeated detection of a trace metal at questionable levels, certain organic constituents are coming to the fore. The test results are repeatable at this point and these organics will eventually require an equal accounting for their existence. I will not enter into an extended discussion of their potential significance at this time, as the first and necessary step is to place on the table that which must be confronted. My introductory suggestion at this point is to become aware of a previous paper on this site, entitled “A New Biology” to gain some familiarity with the scope of the issue . It is fair to say that along with changes of chemistry in this planet, we must also confront certain changes in biology that are in place. The history of this planet, the cosmos, life and our own species is dynamic, and intelligence itself is partially expressed in the ability to adapt to changing circumstances. We are in the process, whether we like it or not, of learning if and how quickly we can adapt to changes that have and are taking place, induced or otherwise. We may also choose whether to participate in the process (hopefully for the betterment of the world, as opposed to its detriment), or if we shall remain ignorant in an effort to ensconce ourselves in a purported comfort zone.
The methods of examination to be presented here are twofold: that of microscopy and that of infrared spectroscopy. Here are some some images that relate to the fact of the matter; they are repeated in both samples that have been examined:
Low Power (~200x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples
(The colors of the filaments are a unique characteristic (commonly red and blue) and they exist as an aid to identification with low power microscopy)
High Power (~5000x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples
These images will not be elaborated on in detail at this time, as it may require a period of time to examine the information that has come forth here. They most certainly indicate a biological nature that shares a common origin with many of the research topics that have evolved on this site over the years. It may be worthwhile to begin by becoming familiar with the ‘environmental filament’ issue that is so thoroughly examined on this site. Since it seems clear that we are indeed dealing with an ‘environmental contaminant’ of sorts, the history of communication with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may also be worthy of review.
It would also seem to be the case that a significant portion of the residual material is inorganic as well, as in an insoluble metallic form. It may be that the insoluble residual material may be composed in part as an organometallic complex, based upon historical findings.
Regardless of the source or impact of these materials, it does seem to fair to state that an accounting for their existence in the atmosphere and rainfall is deserved. Each of us may wish to play a part in seeking the answers to such issues and questions before us all. I wish for this to happen, as I suspect many of us know that it is the right thing to do.
A method and means to identify the species and concentration of several different trace metals in ionic form has been established. The method employed is that of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, which is a subset of the science of voltammetry. The brief paper presents a preliminary examination of a rainwater sample for the existence of trace metals. The sample under examination shows the existence of aluminum in a soluble form. An estimate of the concentration level of the aluminum has been made; this level exceeds that of the recommended standards for drinking water. The results indicate that public concerns about the toxicity levels of certain trace metals in the general environment are warranted, and that a more thorough evaluation of the state of atmospheric quality by the responsible agencies is required.
Rainwater Sample of this Study Collected under “Clean” Conditions
Note that Visible Pollution is also Evident
The determination of trace metals can be an expensive and sophisticated proposition. One of the more modern methods of detection at trace levels involves the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP); such means and skill sets are not practiced by the public under normal circumstances. The determination of inorganic compounds at trace levels has always presented a serious challenge to this Institute, and in the past all such efforts have been relegated to that which can be gleaned primarily from qualitative testing methods. One interesting alternative, with a long history and of increasing importance, is the science of voltammetry. Many are familiar with the fact that elements and compounds have unique electromagnetic spectrums, such as those employed in the disciplines of spectroscopy including, for example, infrared spectrometry and atomic absorption. It is valuable to know that many of these same elements also have an ‘electrochemical signature’, and that they behave in unique and identifiable ways when exposed to variations in voltage and current. It is from this fact that voltammetry was born, and its origin dates back to the the days of Michael Faraday. The basic principle of voltammetry is to examine the relationships of oxidation and reduction within a medium or a reaction; there are numerous variations upon the specifics of this theme. Voltammetry equipment is dramatically more modest in cost than ICP and mass spectrometry, and yet it can still produce usable results that are, on many occasions, commensurate with the more advanced equipment and technology. Such equipment, in is most basic form, is now employed at the Institute and it is yielding promising results in the important domain of inorganic analysis, such as metals and halogens.
The study here refers only to an inorganic analysis that has been made; at a later date a presentation on biological aspects of the rainwater sample will occur as time and circumstances permit.
The rain sample was collected on Oct 30 2015 with new and clean containers with a clear path to the sky above. The sample was then evaporated to 33% of the original volume for the purpose of increasing the concentration level sufficient for testing purposes. The sample was compared to a control volume of distilled water.
The potentiostat used in the voltammetry work is a CV-27 model from Bioanalytical Sciences. The unit has passed all test procedures as described in the manual. The output from the potentiostat is coupled to a Pico 2000 series digital oscilloscope, whereby both voltage input and output can be displayed as a function of time. The basic mode of operation for the testing process is therefore one of chronopotentiometry.
A series of calibration tests were made with a variety of trace metals, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron and aluminum.
The goals of the investigations include both the ability to identify the species as well as concentration; both goals have been achieved with the above elements in an ionic state in sufficient concentration, i.e., on the order of a few parts per million (PPM). The work will extend to other species and combinations thereof in the future.
The particular variation of chronopotentiometry that has been utilized is that of cyclic chronopotentiometry, i.e, the alternating sweep between positive and negative voltages in the effort to identify the peak potential that characterizes the redox reaction of the particular element.
In addition, it has been found that the derivative of the chronopotentiogram is a key and critical factor in the determination of the species. A careful analysis of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram can be used with favor to identify the peak potential of the element.
When this point is identified and collated with the identifying element, concentration levels can also be established if a set of known standards is available. Concentration determinations on the order of a few parts per million have been achieved on multiple occasions.
Further careful evaluation of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram in combination with variable voltage sweeps can be used to identify separate components within a mixture of ionic species; this has been accomplished with a combination of three elements in ionic form in aqueous media to date.
The current work, under these preliminary conditions and examinations, leads to an assessment of a concentration level estimate of aluminum (+3, ionic state) within the rain sample at approximately 2.5 PPM. A conservative approach in all manners of examination has been adopted in the preparation of this estimate, and the condensing of the sample is accounted for.
The Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 lists the secondary regulations for aluminum in drinking water as being within the range of 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L. This corresponds to a range of 0.05 to 0.2 PPM for this same standard. It is an interesting observation within the same report that Secondary Drinking Water Regulations exist as non-enforceable federal guidelines. The wisdom of that classification process can be determined by the reader.
Continuing with the most conservative approach possible, one is led to the assessment that this particular rain sample from a rural location in northern Idaho exceeds the EPA drinking water standard and health advisory by roughly a factor of 12.
The following reference statement from the United States Geological Survey (Bulletin 1827-A, 1967) may be of interest in the evaluation of importance that is to take place:
It is a point of interest that many individuals have ascribed the detection of aluminum within the atmosphere over a period of many years to my name. Such was never the case. My earlier work did indeed establish the precept that ionizable metallic salts are at the core of atmospheric pollution that we now live under, but the testing of aluminum, specifically, was not a part of that process. The chemistry of aluminum is quite different from that of the alkali earth metals, and the documentation of its existence by others has always raised intriguing questions of physics. Prior to this current work, most of the inorganic analyses that I have made have been restricted to qualitative tests. No means of testing aluminum at the trace levels has existed for the Institute prior to this occasion. Hopefully, this situation is now mildly improved with the current voltammetric studies. This paper adds itself to a long list of documented actions by the citizenry on the consideration that aluminum is certainly, and has been, entitled to.
As a starting point, we might wish to consider the role that aluminum may play within a geoengineered environment, and it may be worthwhile to look at the exothermic energetics of nano-particulates of aluminum under exposure to moisture. It raises some tantalizing prospects for additional capabilities of an induced or artificial plasma state.
It is also an observation that visible pollutants in rainwater may be most pronounced with the advent of a storm. This is logical, and this has certainly been observed in the cases of excessive fires in this region. Time will tell if it is the circumstance of other samples. It remains to be seen how the gradation of pollutants varies with respect to the duration of the rainfall. Nevertheless, this study does exist as a valid data point and the merit of consideration is not weakened by any progression of dilution. The concentration gradient with respect to storm length for invisible pollutants, such as those in ionic form, remains as a topic of equal interest for the future.
There is, of course, considerable debate on the issue of the sources of contamination within our water supplies on this planet. I will not engage in that debate in this paper, as the purpose here is to simply provide another data point of reference that may be of service in helping to establish the accountability that is required. There are arguments by some that wish to frame a state of ‘normalcy’ for us, regardless of the level of contamination that as a species we now infest ourselves with. Regardless of various machinations that may be in vogue, we may all ask the questions of where standards evolve from, and whether or not we knowingly wish to deny the legacy of health knowledge that has been acquired over decades, if not centuries. We should also be called upon to use our united common sense and intuition, pray coupled with the best scientific information available, to act as stewards for our future, and to be worthy of such a title.
XI : ANOTHER POSITIVE TEST METHOD FOR IRON (Fe+3) IN THE CULTURE
IN PROGRESS Estimated Completion Date : Can Not Be Estimated At This Time
Clifford E Carnicom
Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident. Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.
PART I : MORGELLONS : A REVERSAL STRATEGY (Dec. 18, 2011)
A viable and tangible strategy to disrupt the growth process of the Morgellons condition, as it exists within the culture form that has been developed, has been established. This strategy involves the breakdown of certain chemical bonds within an identified proteinaceous complex in a manner that is not harmful to the human body. The reduction strategy also includes the release of iron that is held within the proteinacous complex in a chelated form. This strategy has been established with confidence and a repetition of results. The current work will be applied next directly to oral human samples. Much time, energy and resources will be required to further investigate, verify and apply this strategy. The preliminary results and the theories are promising at this stage.
To be continued
To be continued
PART II: PROTEINACOUS FORM IDENTIFIED
A note to the staff of the Institute tonight (Dec. 2, 2011); this will give some idea as to some of the work in progress…
The existence of a protein within the culture growths has now been established with confidence tonight. I had to do work to eliminate questions of potential contaminants that might have distorted the results. It is also a process of much patience with chromatography, literally drip by drip over many days for each test that is set up. It has taken about 1 1/2 to 2 months to get to this point.
Existence of a protein is eventually of equal importance as that of the iron work. We now have iron and the protein as two primary and identified constituents. This work will raise more questions that it answers, but we need to live with this for now until future means and equipment and methods work their way in. One more reliable way of putting a stop to this fellow is to truly understand the biochemistry and the life cycle of growth; there is then a better chance of interfering with that cycle in a known manner.
The existence of a protein means there is DNA behind it. As you can imagine, the work has actually just begun if we can get these means. Next questions would be what type of protein, what is the function of the protein(s), sequencing of the proteins, etc. Right along with it would be the isolation of DNA, electrophoresis work, etc. An infra-red spectrophotometer would be a very useful piece of equipment for us on an ongoing basis – we are having to work very hard to get certain results that would be more apparent with the right equipment.
I may put this comment on the paper to get the process started, otherwise I have so many to write I will never get to any of them at the current rate…
A positive Biuret protein test result using a separation of elute from the chromatography column. The sample material is based upon a culture from oral filaments. The original extraction from the chromatography column is to the left; the positive Biuret result for the existence of a protein is shown on the right with the purple color. Successful separation on the column has been achieved using various combinations of solvents in combination with a stationary phase
A positive Biuret test result using whey (lactoferrin) protein for control purposes. A positive test results in the purplish color shown above. The Biuret test depends on a copper complex that forms between the protein (peptide bonds) and copper sulfate and an alkaline solution, such as sodium hydroxide.
PART III: DIMORPHISM, SYMBIOSIS OR DESIGN
The morphology, metabolism and life cycle of the “Morgellons” organism, as defined by this researcher, is increasingly being understood. There are now three scenarios that can be provided that encompass the majority of the understanding that has been achieved.
The first of these examines a similarity of form, at least in part, to a dimorphic fungal-like organism.
The second considers the joint existence of bacterial-like and fungal-like organisms in a symbiotic relationship.
The last raises the spectre of a genetically created or designed organism.
Each of these scenarios has certain strengths, weaknesses and probabilities of occurrence. There can also be a degree of overlap between these alternative interpretations. This paper will discuss what has been discovered, within these three scenarios, that helps us to potentially define the nature of this unusual organism.
PART IV: MAGNETIC (ELECTROMAGNETIC) PROPERTIES OF THE GROWTH FORMS:
The magnetic (and consequently, the electromagnetic) properties of the primary Morgellons growth form are now proven in a direct fashion. The video segments below show the response of both the culture derived form and the oral sample to a strong magnetic field. These demonstrations will call into consideration each of the papers written on the subject of electromagnetics by this researcher. One such topic will be the extended research that has been done that reveals the ambient presence of unaccounted Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) energy over a testing period of several years. The human electromagnetic system operates primarily within the ELF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity and response of the Morgellons growth form to the electromagnetic spectrum is another of the many primary fields of research that requires funding, resources and skilled personnel to complete. The identified presence of iron and ferromagnetic compounds within the growth forms establishes the basis of this future research, along with the direct demonstration of the magnetic response shown below:
To be continued.
PART V: DNA EXTRACTION
To be continued.
PART VI: THE SERBIAN SAMPLE
To be continued.
PART VII: COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY
To be continued.
PART VIII : CONFERENCE VIDEO EDITING PROJECT
To be continued.
PART IX : CULTURE GROWTH RATE IMPROVED
To be continued.
X : ELECTROPHORESIS PROCESS BEGINS
Starch Gel Electrophoresis Applied to Proteinacous Samples : Initial Tests Underway
Starch Gel Electrophoresis : Trial Runs of Test Dyes and Blood Sample. Left photograph shows methylene blue dye migration towards the negative terminal. Arrows on right photograph depict origins of placement. Blood sample shows both positive and negative charged protein component separation at lower portion of right photograph. Eosin test case on upper left of right photograph; migration toward positive terminal Methods remain under development; no successful separation of presumed culture based proteinacous component at this time.
To be continued.
XI :ANOTHER POSITIVE TEST METHOD FOR FERRIC IRON (Fe3+) IN THE CULTURE
Another test method has been developed to detect and establish the presence of iron in the Fe3+ state within the culture growth that is based upon the oral samples. The test is positive. The further significance of this test is that it has been applied directly to the proteinaceous complex that has been extracted from the culture with the use of column chromatography. This further substantiates the case that the proteinaceous complex itself contains iron in the ferric state and that this iron is bound to certain amino acids that are under examination as candidates. It will be possible to determine the concentration of the iron within the proteinaceous complex through spectrometry. The test is based upon the use of ammonium thioglycolate.
Clifford E Carnicom
(born Clifford Bruce Stewart Jan 19 1953)
MORGELLONS : A THESIS Clifford E Carnicom
October 15 2011 Edited Dec 01 2011
Edited May 10 2013
Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident. Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.
A substantial body of research has accumulated to make the case that the underlying organism (i.e., pathogen) of the so-called “Morgellons” condition, as identified by this researcher, is using the iron from human blood for its own growth and existence. It will also be shown that the bio-chemical state of the blood is being altered in the process. The implications of this thesis are severe as this alteration affects, amongst other things, the ability and capacity of the blood to bind to oxygen. Respiration is the source of energy for the body.
This change is also anticipated to increase the number of free radicals and to increase acidity in the body. This process also requires and consumes energy from the body to take place; this energy supports the growth and proliferation of the organism. The changes in the blood are anticipated to increase its combination with respiratory inhibitors and toxins. The changes under evaluation may occur without any obvious outward symptoms. It is also anticipated that there are consequences upon metabolism and health that extend beyond the functions of the blood. This change represents essentially a systemic attack upon the body, and the difficulties of extinction of the organism are apparent. Physiological conditions that are in probable conjunction with the condition are identified. Strategies that may be beneficial in mitigating the severity of the condition are enumerated.
This paper will present this case progressively, and it will build upon the information that has been presented in previous papers. The paper will sequence through the following topics of discussion:
1. A Brief Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron
2. Beginning Observations
3. Qualitative Chemical Analysis
4. An Introduction to Bonding : Ionic, Covalent, Polar Covalent and Coordinated Covalent Bonds
5. The Structure of the Heme Molecule and the Role of Ligands
6. Qualitative Chemical Analysis of the Oral Samples : Two Methods to Verify the Existence of Ferric Iron
7. A Method to Extract the Oxidized Iron within the Filament Growth Structure
8. A Discussion of Ligands
9. Spectral Analysis of the Blood and a Comparison to the Growth Spectrum
10. Methemoglobinemia and Hypoxia
11. Ionization and Bond Disassociation Energy : The Cost of Oxidation
12. Bacterial Requirements for Iron in the Blood
13. The Oral Filament and Red Wine Reaction Resolved
14. Some Health Implications; The Value of the Holistic Approach to Medicine
15. Identification of physiological conditions that are in probable conjunction with the condition.
16. A Proposed Spectral Analysis Project
17. A Review of Proposed Mitigation Strategies
As we continue with our discussion, there will be three different general approaches that will be used in a combined sense to reach the conclusions that have been stated above. The first of these will be direct observation, the second will be qualitative chemical examination, and the last will be the use of spectral analysis and analytics. A synthesis of each approach will give us the understanding of the situation that we require. Let us begin with some discussion on the chemistry of iron and then follow with a few of the qualitative iron tests that are helpful in the methods that have been developed.
1. A Brief Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron:
Let us start with an introduction to iron. Iron exists in three primary forms in nature, the first in its elemental form with no net charge, and the other two as compounds, known as ferrous and ferric compounds. It is these latter two states of iron that will be of interest to us in terms of human biochemistry.
Ferrous compounds involve iron in a charged state, known as Fe2+, and ferric compounds involve iron in the valence state of 3, or Fe+3. The term valence refers to the number of electrons lost or gained in a chemical reaction. For example, a loss of two electrons from an atom will leave the atom in a charged state of +2. A charged atom or compound is called an ion or ionic compound, respectively.
Why is this important to us and why should we learn about the chemistry of iron? It is because iron is in our bodies and it is absolutely crucial to our lives and our health. The charged state of the iron in our bodies and our blood is of the utmost importance in understanding the changes to human health that are occurring.
Now let us start focusing upon the iron in blood. Your blood needs iron to function. Not only does your blood need iron to function but it needs the iron to be in a particular state for your blood to work properly. The iron in your blood must be in the ferrous form, or the Fe2+ in order to bind to oxygen1,2,3,4,5. If it is not in this state (e.g, ferric iron or Fe3+), it will not bind to oxygen and human health will suffer. You are not thriving in an energetic sense if you do not have the proper oxygen content within your blood.
Hopefully we understand that the state of the iron in our bodies is not a trivial affair and it is in our interest to become educated on the matter. It is the very path that I have chosen in this research and the implications of these studies are profound.
Now let us talk, in a general sense, about what causes iron to change state. What for example, would cause iron in the elemental form (Fe) to go to the Fe2+ (charged) state, or for that matter, from the Fe2+ state to the Fe3+ (further charged) state? It is here that we introduce and explain the term of oxidation. As a familiar example, when something rusts, it is being oxidized. What it means, in a more descriptive sense, is that a chemical reaction is taking place and that electrons are being removed from an atom or substance. Formally speaking, oxidation refers to the process of losing electrons. Oxidation increases the charge state of the atom or ion, because as an electron (i.e, negative charge) is removed, the atom, ion or substance becomes more positive as a result. A typical example of oxidation is the change of iron from the Fe2+ state (i.e, ferrous) to the Fe3+ (i.e., ferric) state mentioned above.
Below are some photographs that show testing of the iron ion in varying oxidation states, ie., Fe2+ and Fe3+ with the use of some specialized chemical reagents. One of the factors that is important in the qualitative tests that we are doing is that of color; color is an extremely useful tool for determining the existence of metals in solution and for the chemical state that they are in.
This set of photographs shows a solution of what is called “liquid iron”, essentially a solution of a ferrous salt (with some minor impurities) that is used in gardening applications. This ferrous solution is formed from a representative iron salt with the iron in the Fe2+ oxidation state. One of the important characteristics visually of the Fe+2 iron is the greenish tint that often accompanies the Fe2+ iron oxidation state. The photograph to the right shows the addition of a chemical (1,10 phenanthroline) that is very sensitive to the presence of the Fe2+ ion, and it turns the solution red in combination with the ion. The use of this chemical is a valuable and sensitive qualitative method to determine the existence of the Fe2+ ion.
This set of photographs is provided to demonstrate the variability of color as well as its value and importance. The photographs above show a freshly dissolved solution of ferrous sulfate. When the ferrous sulfate is dissolved in water it will ionize (separate into ions of Fe2+ and (SO4)2-). It will also generally turn light green in color but this example lacks the stronger green tint shown in the set to the left. Colors can easily be influenced by concentrations and impurities. A separate solution made previously demonstrates a stronger green tint that is characteristic of the Fe+2 ion; this particular one does not. The use of 1,10 phenanthroline reagent resolves the issue very clearly, however, as the characteristic reaction to produce the bold red color in combination with the Fe2+ ion is evident. This example demonstrates the value of approaching the problem from more than one perspective, such as with the use of color, chemistry and spectral analysis for a more comprehensive assessment of the situation.
This set shows an analogous qualitative chemical test for the presence of the Fe3+ ion solution. This particular solution is that of ferric chloride. There is an expected similarity in color between various ferric salts, as the ionic form of iron is the agent responsible for the color. A distinctive feature of the Fe3+ ion in solution is that of a yellow to brown color.
This photo also shows the use of a different, but equally important, reagent that is used to detect the presence of the Fe3+ ion in solution. The chemical used in this case is that of sodium thiocyanide. Even though this reagent also produces a bold red color, this test and the one mentioned above using 1,10 phenanthroline are entirely separate and unique from one another, and are only valid for the particular ion of each test.
The value of the tests shown above are threefold:
1. First we have a sensitive qualitative method of identifying the existence of specific iron ions, i.e., Fe2+ and Fe3+ in solution6. These tests can also be extended in combination with a spectrophotometer to provide concentration levels of the ions, if required7.
2. If the test succeeds, we know that the iron states are present in an ionic form within the solution. If the test fails, it does not mean that Fe2+ or Fe3+ are not present, it only means that they are not present in ionic (i.e, disassociated) form. It is possible that the iron could exist in a different form (e.g., bound within a molecular compound) than ionic, and the test would not show this fact. This distinction will become important in later testing procedures that are described.
3. Regardless of individual variations, there is a clear and distinctive difference between the greenish tints associated with the Fe2+ ion and the yellowish and brown tints that result from the Fe3+ ion. This distinction will also become important in later testing.
2. Beginning Observations:
Let us now switch over to the course of direct observation. Many of us may recall that certain culture growth trials were discussed in an earlier paper entitled “Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal8. In that paper, conditions and circumstances that both increased and inhibited the rate of growth of the organism were discussed. A section of that paper again is relevant again with direct observation, as shown below, in combination with the color characteristics of iron discussed above. Direct observation essentially indicates to us that the organism is able to utilize and absorb iron in the Fe3+ state. Let us discuss further why this is the case.
This photograph shows a culture that has just been started. The process of starting a culture with this method requires only a single drop of the culture solution. The culture solution is prepared by subjecting the pulverized and dried filaments of previous growth to sodium hydroxide in solution and heat to the boiling point. The culture medium has ferrous (Fe+2) sulfate and hydrogen peroxide added to it as described in the paper referenced. This chemical reaction that takes place will again be described in more detail below.
This photograph shows the state of the culture growth after a few days have elapsed. The dark brown color characteristic of the ferric (Fe+3) oxidized iron within the organism growth is visible. The organism is absorbing the nutrients that have been provided in the culture medium. In this case, the Fe+2 ion originally introduced into the solution was oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide (Fenton’s reaction) to produce the Fe+3 iron state. The organism is able to nourish itself from this oxidized state of iron and it imparts the characteristic color of the iron (Fe3+) oxidation state within the growth of the culture.
In order to understand the results of the photographs above, it is helpful to describe a chemical reaction, called “Fenton’s reaction” that was discussed in the former referenced paper9. Fenton’s reaction involves the combination of iron in the Fe2+ state (in this case, ferrous sulfate) and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction is as follows:10
Fe2+ + H2O2Fe3+ + OH. + OH−
This reaction was established in the following manner: A starter culture of the underlying organism was introduced into distilled water. A few drops of a ferrous salt solution, namely ferrous sulfate was introduced into the culture. This was followed by a few drops of hydrogen peroxide. It has been learned that this culture medium rapidly accelerates the growth of the culture. The result of the combination of the iron in the Fe2+ state with hydrogen peroxide produces three things:
1. Iron ions in the ferric state, or Fe3+.
2. The hydroxide ion (not a radical), OH-
3. The hydroxyl radical, a highly reactive free radical.
Notice that none of these three developments were dependent upon the culture; Fentons reactions would have taken place irregardless of the introduction of the organism. What we do know from the reaction, however, is that the iron is oxidized to the Fe3+ state and becomes immediately available to the organism along with the hydroxyl radical. The paper mentioned discusses some of the ramifications of this combination with respect to health. Not only does the oxidation takes place, but we see that the organism is directly able to utilize the iron in this oxidized state (Fe3+) for its growth and sustenance.
This provides our first link in understanding the role of oxidation of iron in our body and its relationship to the growth of the organism. All of the conditions described for the controlled petri dish trial are also to be found to occur within the human body.
3. Qualitative Chemical Analysis:
There are chemical tests which can be performed to determine the existence of substances, particularly those in ionic form. These tests are valuable in that they are relatively simple and yet they can provide crucial information as to the existence of a metallic ion, for instance, without providing quantitative or concentration levels. Examples of this include the determination of the existence of the iron ions (both ferrous and ferric), copper ions, sulphate ions, chloride ions and others11,12,13. It is important to understand that the tests being described in this section are for ionic forms only, i.e, they are in a disassociated form in solution. A negative test does not mean that the element in some form does not exist, (.e.g, bound in a molecular form); it only means that it does not exist in an ionic form. This distinction will become important to us as we proceed later with additional laboratory procedures.
An excellent example of a qualitative test for the presence of ionic forms of iron has already been described in the earlier section of this paper, entitled An Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron. In this case, as described, certain reagents were used to positively identify the presence of the Fe+2 and Fe+3 ions in known solutions.
Now let us apply these methods to the questions at hand, which are twofold:
1. Does human blood in solution contain iron ions? We know that blood contains iron, so it will be of interest to examine if it exists in ionic form.
2. Does the culture solution (as developed from oral filaments characteristic of Morgellons) contain iron ions?
Let us discuss the first question, i.e., does blood contain iron in ionic form? If so, is it in the Fe2+ state, or the Fe3+ state, both, or none? We can answer this question with the application of the same reagents mentioned earlier, 1,10 phenanthroline for the test of Fe2+ ions and sodium thiocyanide for the testing of Fe3+ ions.
The results in both cases are negative. This means that human blood does not show the existence if iron in ionic form, either Fe2+ or Fe3+ within it. It does not mean that blood does not have iron within it, for we know that it does. But in what form does it exist then? If it is not ionic, is the iron bound in some way? If so, what is it bound to? How do we know what state it is in (Fe2+ or Fe3+) if it is bound to something? These are some of the questions before us. The answers to these questions will become important to us in our understanding of any changes taking place to the blood and they will become equally relevant in our tests of the culture solution based upon oral filament growths. This result also raises the problem of how do we go about qualitatively testing for iron in the blood as we have now learned that the direct ion testing approach is not sufficient.
As we proceed, please keep in the forefront that our problem is to approach the question of how the state of oxidation of blood is affected by the Morgellons condition.
Now let us test the culture solution in the same way: The preparation of the culture solution can be described in detail at a later time; this has been summarized to some degree in previous papers.
The results are again in both cases negative. This tells us correspondingly, that the culture solution does not contain iron in the ionic form (Fe2+ or Fe3+), at least to the degree of sensitivity of the tests. Once again, it does NOT mean that the culture solutions do not contain iron, only that if it is present that it is not in the ionic (disassociated) form. The issue, therefore, must provoke our testing methods further and the question of iron binding to other molecules, even if in an oxidized state (Fe2+ or Fe3+), rises to importance.
4. An Introduction to Bonding : Ionic, Covalent, Polar Covalent and Coordinated Covalent Bonds:
Soon we must educate ourselves further on how iron exists within the blood. Before that occasion, however, we must also spend some time talking about the various methods that atoms use to bind together to form molecules and compounds. Much of what happens in chemistry is in some way related to bonding and it is helpful to have at least some background on the subject. Ultimately, the knowledge is crucial to our understanding and determination of how the oxidation state of blood is altered.
Within conventional chemistry, there are two forms of bonding of atoms that occur: ionic and covalent. Ionic bonding means that electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Covalent bonding means that the electrons are shared between atoms. Bonding is important because the physical properties of a substance are generally entirely different depending upon the type of bonding that exists. Therefore, if you know what type of bonding is occurring within a molecule or substance, you can likely determine quite a bit about the physical properties and behavior of the substance. In our case, this is not an academic exercise and we do not have a choice; we need to learn as much as we can about the properties of the blood and how it interacts with the rest of the body. Science is more meaningful is we can give value and application to our studies and in our current situation, our very lifeblood and welfare depends upon this pursuit. Consider taking some time to learn about the chemistry and biochemistry that is involved here and we will all be the better for it.
The following are simple illustrations of both ionic and covalent bonding:
Next, a brief word on polar covalent bonding: Polar covalent bonding is a variation on the covalent bonding theme shown above. In the example above on covalent bonding, the forces on the electrons are symmetrical. When different types of atoms join together(as shown below) vs. atoms of the same type (as in the two hydrogen atoms shown above), the forces between the electrons are not necessarily symmetrical. This asymmetry of forces between shared electrons is referred to as a polar covalent bond. A simple example of polar covalent bonding, i.e., the water molecule, is shown immediately below. These three types of bonds: ionic, covalent and polar covalent cover most of the ground of conventional and introductory discussions of bonding of atoms within chemistry.
An example of polar covalent bonding.
The asymmetric sharing of electrons and unequal distribution of charge characterizes this bond form.
Source : Zendarie : Biology One Step At a Time [http://zendarie.com/2011/chemical-bonds/ : Server Not Found 404 12/13/15]
We, however, in our journey of understanding the nature of iron bonding within blood, are not allowed to stop here. We will find that the three bond types above do not tell us what we need to know about the way in which iron is bonded, or “held” within the blood. There is indeed a fourth type of bonding that we will introduce, and we will find that it is different, unique, interesting and important to know about when it comes to understanding what is happening within our blood. The bond type that is pertinent to our need to know is called a “coordinated covalent bond“.
The coordinated covalent bond is an interesting animal, as it does not fit in very well with any of the conventional explanations of bonding listed above. What has caught my interest is that the coordinate covalent bond is not introduced in the forefront of chemistry education, but from my vantage point, it can easily end up being a most important form of bonding to know about. It seems to me that one of the easiest ways to attempt to visualize a coordinated covalent bond is to imagine at atom being “held” or “suspended” or surrounded by electrons, the forces of those electrons keeping the bond in place. Let us get the formal definitions, and then go to work with an image that can help us to understand this unique form of bonding. Here are three definitions to work with:
“A coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which one of the bonded atoms furnishes both of the shared electrons”13.
“A particular type of covalent bond is one in which one of the atoms supplies both of the electrons. These are known as dipolar (or coordinate, semipolar, or dative) bonds.”14
“A covalent bond occurs when one atom contributes both of the shared pair of electrons. Once formed, there is no difference between a coordinate bond and any other covalent bond.”15
And lastly, for the person in greater need, here is a more detailed online definition16 and description of the coordinate covalent bond.16
An example of coordinate covalent bonding.
This is called a Lewis diagram and it shows the arrangements of the electrons in the outer shell of the atom and how they are “shared” or coordinated.
Source: New World Encyclopedia: Covalent Bond
Now let us try to give more meaning to what the coordinate covalent bond entails. The images above depict one of the simpler presentations of a coordinate covalent bond. Both images are different views of the same bonding process. What the picture shows on the left is that instead of one electron being shared by each atom (in this case, Nitrogen and Boron) to form a shared pair, BOTH electrons are donated by the Nitrogen atom and none by the Boron atom to form the bond. The end result is the same as in a regular covalent bond, but the process by which the bond was achieved differs from a normal covalent bond. The reason that this type of bonding is important is that many types of new and fundamentally important “complexes” or chemical structures can be formed. Our blood structure is one such example. Many of the complexes that are formed in this way involve the bonding of a metal atom (e.g, iron) with surrounding molecules, and this leads us directly into our discussion of the blood and the hemoglobin (or heme) molecule. The formation of what are called coordination complexes or coordination compounds, very often with metals at the center of the structure, is one of the most important practical branches of chemistry. It is necessary for us to understand coordination complexes in order to understand how the iron in our blood bonds to oxygen. And so now that we are in the thick of it, on we go…
5. The Structure of the Heme Molecule and the Role of Ligands:
We are now in position to become more familiar with the detailed structure of blood. Our interest will be centered on hemoglobin, and in even greater detail, upon what is known as the heme molecule. Hemoglobin is an iron containing protein within red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the molecule that transports oxygen.17 It is the iron of hemoglobin that binds to oxygen18. Heme is one of four subunits within hemoglobin. Each heme group has an iron atom at its center, and therefore each hemoglobin molecule can bind to four molecules of oxygen (O2).19 Our primary interest will be in the heme group, as it is where the oxygen carrying capacity exists. Here are a couple of images to familiarize the reader with the overall structure of hemoglobin and the heme group. Subsequently, we will examine the heme group in even greater detail along with the bonding process.
A closer view of the heme group. The iron atom(orange) resides in the center of the heme group. The oxygen (O2) molecule is in red above the iron atom. We will examine this structure and bonding process in greater detail below
Source : Wiley : Biochemistry
The type of bonding that allows the heme group to exist and to bind iron to oxygen as shown above is the coordinated covalent bonding that has been introduced previously. This type of bonding allows the formation of a multitude of metal complexes, and the heme group is an example of one such structure that incorporates a coordinated metal complex. These metal complexes and the unique type of bonding they incorporate are have a special importance in biochemistry and in blood. Let us now look at the heme group in even greater detail to understand the molecular structure further:
The heme group, consisting of an iron atom in the Fe+2 state, surrounded by four nitrogen atoms bound with coordinated covalent bonds. The iron must be in the +2 state to be able to bind to oxygen..
Image source: Wikipedia
A three-dimensional model of the heme group, with the iron (II) atom at the center surrounded by the four nitrogen atoms. This type of structure is known as a porphyrin. One of the best known porphyrins is heme, which is the pigment in red blood cells.
Source: Argus Lab
The dexoxygenated heme molecule (model) shown
with oxygen atoms (red) removed (left) and attached (right).
The heme group consists of an iron atom in the center of a ring structure, termed a porphyrin. The porphyrin includes the central iron atom in the +2 oxidized state and is surrounded by four nitrogen atoms with coordinate covalent bonds. The upper two photographs of this sections show this structure in both a planar view and a three-view. The coordinate covalent bonds, as discussed earlier, allow the transition metals such as iron to bind to a host of varying molecules. This type of structure is also that known as a chelate, where a central atom is bound to surrounding molecules or structures (termed ligands). A great variety of molecular structures with the transition metals can occur with this unique and more complex bond type, i.e., the coordinated covalent bond.
The lower photograph shows two additional aspects of the heme molecule and the bonds that it makes within. These include the histidine (an amino acid) structure and the oxygen molecule. The oxygen molecule is at the heart of the discussion here. The left photograph within the pair shows the oxygen molecule removed from the heme group and the right photograph within the pair shows the oxygen bound to the Fe2+ atom. The iron must be in the Fe2+ state for the oxygen to bind; transport of oxygen is a vital and crucial function of the blood within the human body. If the iron in the blood is changed to the Fe3+ state, the bonds to oxygen are broken and the blood is then known as deoxyhemoglobin. The primary cause of change in the oxidation state of an atom is from an oxidizer; some of the best known oxidizers include the hydroxyl radical, ozone, peroxides and bleaches20. Oxidizers exist with the human body to some level naturally. There is a body of evidence available in the literature that will demonstrate that excessive exposure to oxidizers within the body can be detrimental to human health. Oxidizers produce free radicals, which are highly reactive molecules that can “wreak havoc within the living system”21. Some of the most important free radicals in biology are the superoxide anion (O2–), peroxide (O2-2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH)22.
It will become apparent that the change in oxidation state of iron from Fe2+ to Fe3+ in sufficient numbers within the blood is generally detrimental to the blood and human health. It will become equally apparent that this change is especially beneficial to the growth of the organism and filamentous biological growth structures that are characteristic of the Morgellons condition.
An animated view of the change between the oxygenated and deoxygenated states of the blood. Correspondingly, this results is a shift between the Fe2+ oxidation state of iron and the Fe3+ oxidation state of iron in the blood.
6. Qualitative Chemical Analysis of the Oral Samples ; Two Methods to Verify the Existence of Ferric Iron:
We are now in a position to better understand and interpret the results of more direct laboratory analysis. It will be found that there is essentially little difference between the direct human filament samples that are under examination and those that result from the culturing process demonstrated repeatedly on this site. At this point we will deal directly with human oral filament samples as the chemical reactions that are common to both forms are now better understood.
It has long been observed that extended exposure (e.g., three minutes +/-) of the oral gums to red wines produces in many, if not most, individuals a purplish filamentous mass than can be expelled and further analyzed. This discovery is fully credited to Gwen Scott, N.D. as originally reported several years ago23,24. It is claimed by some individuals that this mass is of a precipitate form and that it is a natural reaction between red wines and saliva. The reaction referred to is valid and has been studied as well. However, the statement as it has been made is entirely false as it refers to the samples under examination. The sample under examination is of a filament form, and it is not a precipitate. The sheer volume of material that can be expelled, let alone the examination of the material, is sufficient to dispel the false and diversionary claims25.
The chemistry of this rather dramatic reaction of filament production and coloration has, prior to this study of the last several months, been unknown. This is no longer entirely the case, and the subject will be introduced again later in this paper. For now, suffice it to say that a most significant chemical reaction and filament production does take place, and the discovery can be regarded as serendipitous and fortunate to the studies that have been made.
Given that such a reaction and production of mass does occur, this study has now examined the material in greater depth from a qualitative chemical perspective. It has also been known for some time now that the filaments do break down and undergo chemical transformation when exposed to a solution of sodium hydroxide (lye) and heat26.
An oral sample filamentous mass produced from extended exposure of the mouth gums to red wine. The sample has been repeatedly rinsed and decanted in distilled water. The purplish color and microscopic filaments are characteristic of the sample.
The oral sample after it has been subjected to a process of alkalizing, heating and filtration. The sample is treated with sodium hydroxide (lye) in solution and heated to the boiling point. The solution is then filtered and produces the colored solution above. Please recall that the color of the ferric ion (3+) is usually yellowish to brownish and that the color of the ferrous (2+) ion is generally more greenish in color. This result of this process indicates that the ferric (3+) iron form is a candidate for further investigation in this qualitative analysis.
The photographs above show the original sample (to the left) and the sample after processing with alkali, heat and filtration (right). The solution on the right is also suitable for spectrophotometric analysis, as shall be discussed later. At this point, we will be concerned only with qualitative chemical reactions.
It is already known that the sample in the solution form prepared immediately above fails a test for the existence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. This has been shown with similar results for the culture form of this study earlier in this paper. This result does not mean that iron does not exist in the solution, only that it does not exist in disassociated ionic form. The reason that the effort has been expended to understand the various types of chemical bonding is that because unless we know in what form a substance exists in solution we may not be able to detect it with common testing methods. This is the reason that an understanding of coordination complexes and coordinate covalent bonding is so essential; we must press the problem further and examine all options with respect to the possible existence of iron forms within the solution. The following three factors are thought to be relevant in the examination of the reaction of the oral sample solution with a copper sulfate solution:
One of the types of chemical reactions is called a single displacement reaction. In a general way, this reaction has the form28:
A + BC -> B + AC
A + BC -> C + BA
and if A is a metal, A will replace B to form AC, provided A is a more reactive metal than B.
Another relevant topic here is what is called the activity series of metals. Some metals are more reactive than others, with water or acids and the activity series of metals lists that reactivity in a tabular form. For example, potassium, calcium and sodium are highly reactive metals with water, iron and nickel are moderately active, copper and silver are of very low reactivity, and gold and platinum are inactive. Here is an example of an activity series table27:
It will be found that a metal higher on the list will replace a metal that is in ionic form and is lower in the list.
Another helpful known reaction is that iron ions (+2 and +3 states, respectively) in solution with sodium hydroxide will form ferrous (+2) hydroxide, a green precipitate, (Fe(OH)2) and ferric hydroxide, a brown precipitate, (Fe(OH)3) respectively.
The first chemical reaction that becomes of interest to study is the oral sample solution above when mixed with copper sulfate. It will be found that a reaction does occur, and the reaction is that a brown precipitate forms. This indicates that we are likely to have formed ferric hydroxide and this gives us another hint that we may be encountering iron within a +3 oxidation state within the original solution. The issue is complicated, however, by the fact that we know the iron is apparently not in ionic form. This would suggest that we are dealing with iron in a coordination complex of some type, where the iron is bound to an unknown ligand. There are still uncertainties in this problem, but it appears that the copper sulfate is somehow a factor in releasing the iron from a complex form (presumably affected by the activity series above) so that it can combine with the hydroxide ion to form ferric hydroxide. A proposed reaction is somewhat akin to the form:
where X is an unknown ligand that is attached to the iron ion. The resulting reaction has been tested further for copper and sulfate ions, respectively, and the results are positive and are therefore consistent with the above reaction.
in which case the ligand is water and involves coordination with the hydrated ferric ion.
A reaction of the oral sample solution with copper sulfate. A brown precipitate forms. A postulated identity of the precipitate is that of ferric hydroxide which contains iron in the 3+ oxidized state. The proposed ligand form is one question that will need to be addressed further. In the interim, the important question to pursue is whether or not the precipitate is consistent with a ferric (vs. ferrous) hydroxide identity. To further test the proposal of ferric hydroxide as the precipitate, it will be found that ferric hydroxide is soluble in citric acid29. It is also known that ferrous hydroxide, when dissolved in citric acid, will turn the solution green (characteristic of the ferrous ion). Ferric hydroxide, when dissolved in ctiric acid will turn the solution to a brownish color (characteristic of the ferric ion). This test has been conducted and the result is positive, the precipitate is soluble in citric acid and the resulting solution is brownish in color. This further solidifies the proposed identity of the precipitate as that of ferric hydroxide.
A second method of verifying the existence of the ferric form of iron within the oral filament sample has been established30. This method involves the reduction of the Fe3+ iron state to the Fe2+ state using ascorbic acid, and then testing for the existence of the iron in the Fe2+ state. The steps of the process are:1
. The oral sample must be extracted with the red wine and the test conducted promptly; this is a time sensitive process that has been created.
2. The oral filament sample is rinsed repeatedly in clear water and decanted until the final mass is in clear distilled water.
3. The sample is treated with sodium hydroxide and’ heated to the boiling point and then filtered. The solution will be brownish in color as described earlier.
4. The solution is then treated with ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is a strong reducer (anti-oxidant).
5. The solution is then centrifuged.
6. The clear solution that results from centrifuging is separated and placed in a separate test tube.
7. A test for the Fe2+ ion is conducted using (1,10) phenanthroline. The test results are positive. This test demonstrates the reduction of existing iron in the Fe3+ state to the Fe2+ state.
In the reference cited, it will be noted that potassium ferricyanide is used in the reaction. This experiment introduces the role of another ligand that will be discussed in more detail later, and this is the cyanide ion. It will be seen that varying ligands form complexes with the transition metals; this is one of the many reasons we must familiarize ourselves with coordination chemistry and coordinate covalent bonds to understand how this organism interacts with the body.
A positive test for the existence of the ferrous ion after reduction by ascorbic acid using (1,10) phenanthroline.
7. A Method to Extract the Oxidized Iron from within the Filament Growth Structure
A third and final method of verifying the existence of the ferric form of iron within the oral filament sample has been established. In this case, the iron itself in an oxide form has been extracted directly from the oral filament sample using electrolysis. The method is both simple and effective. Many metallic salts, when subjected to electrolysis, liberate a gas at the anode and deposit the metal in pure form at the cathode31,32,33,34. Presumably this can apply to certain transition metal (e.g., iron) complexes as well and as evidenced by the results obtained. The method used is to apply a current to the oral sample solution directly. Voltage is applied at 6 volts for approximately 8 hours of time. The current in the solution has been measured at 0.7 mA. The electrolyte is sufficiently decomposed at the end of that period. The metallic compound is collected and heated and dried at the end of that period. It appears as though the bonds in the compound are quite strong as the compound is only mildly soluble in strong acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. The compound reacts vigorously to hydrogen peroxide as shown below in the video segment. The reaction shown involving the decomposition hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water is an established and known catalytic reaction (in the same genre as Fenton’s reaction)35,36.
The results of all qualitative tests indicate that a ferric (3+) iron is a highly significant component of the growth structure and organism development. It is also presumed at this stage of the analysis that the iron exists primarily within a transition metal coordination complex with ligand structures that require further analysis and identification. An additional discussion on the ligand aspect of this study will follow.
Drying the metallic residue from the electrolytic processing of the oral sample.
The final iron oxide (ferric oxide) compound result obtained directly from the oral sample through electrolysis.
Ferric Oxide Compound and Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Reaction:
This is a catalytic reaction that does not result in a change in the iron oxide form or mass.
Magnification approx 75x.
8. A Discussion of Ligands:
Let us talk about ligands for a moment. Remember that a coordination complex is formed with a metal atom at the center of the complex surrounded by atoms that donate electrons to form the coordinate covalent bonds. These donor structures are called ligands. The heme group that we discussed was a representative example of such a coordination complex, with the iron atom in the center of the ring with nitrogen atoms surrounding the iron. We also have a histidine (amino acid) group attached to the heme and then the oxygen molecules at a sixth position in the complex. We have also seen that the oxygen molecules can come and go within the complex depending upon the state of the iron in the center of the complex. Please review some of the images and discussion above if you would like to recall this discussion.
It now is becoming more apparent to us why we must understand the specific molecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules (especially the heme group within) and’ of the transition metal (notably iron) coordination complexes within the heme group. It is also equally important that we must learn more about the impact of “ligands”, as ligands are the atoms or structures that bind to the metal. Coordination chemistry seems to be a bit more involved than conventional chemical study as the bonding structures are highly varied and more difficult to predict. But the necessity exists here, for what binds to the iron (i.e., ligand) that has been altered (i.e., oxidized) is going to be extremely important in understanding the impact or predicted impact upon the body. For instance, the importance of this topic can be stressed with the following:
“Metal and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances…… Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and environmental chemistry.“37
Therefore, we will need to understand ligands and coordination complexes in more detail to help us get out of the mess that we are in. Please engage yourself in that process as it appears that it will become very important in understanding the human health effects that are in place as we speak.
An introduction to this topic involves what is called the “spectrochemical series”. Fortunately there is a knowledge base available to help us understand what ligands (or chemical structures) are more likely to attach to metal ions, such as iron, than others are. Three fields of study that are helpful in this regard are:38
1. The Spectrochemical Series
2. Ligand Field Theory
3. Crystal Field Theory.
The latter two topics are more advanced fields of chemistry study and can only be briefly mentioned in this report. The latter two subjects, Ligand Field Theory and Crystal Field Theory, help us to understand how the spectrochemical series has developed. In this paper, we need to focus on this end result to start with and to at least become familiar with the spectrochemical series.
The spectrochemical series is a ranking of ligands, according to what are called weak field ligands and strong field ligands. Both abbreviated and longer form tabulations of the spectrochemical series exist depending upon the level of investigation. An example of an abbreviated spectrochemical series is as follows:39
Recall that the most important feature of a coordination compound is the donation of a pair of electrons by the ligand (i.e., donor) to form a coordinate covalent bond with the metal. As a first generalization, softer metals generally prefer bonds to weak-field ligands and harder metals (e.g,, iron) are more likely to bond with strong field ligands40. It can also be cited that the cyanide ion and carbon monoxide would be expected to have a rather strong affinity for the ferric (3+) ion41. This type of relationship will be critical in our understanding and future direction of research in relation to the altered blood that has been identified in this report. Separate research from a variety of sources42,43 has also disclosed the following list of candidates ions or molecules to consider as potential ligands to the oxidized iron (+3) atom (this list will overlap with the spectrochemical series):
Please be aware that many of the ligands under review above are toxic or interfere with biological processes. As examples, the cyanide ion, azide ion and carbon monoxide are each respiratory inhibitors to some degree. Although an introduction to a significant problem related to oxygen deficiency (methemoglobinemia) will be discussed later in this report, much research remains to be tackled on the subject of ligands and oxidized iron. Please consider the support of this research if you are so inclined.
9. Spectral Analysis of the Blood and a Comparison to the Growth Spectrum:
Extensive spectrometric analysis human blood is the original basis for this report. It was observed early on in the process that the expected spectrum of normal hemoglobin was not being observed using blood samples from a variety of individuals. This required establishing a “reference spectrum” for hemoglobin based upon that of record and upon historical public data. Please review the previous paper entitled Altered Blood44 for an introduction to the situation at hand. This paper remains current and accurate with the information acquired and analysis completed thus far.
The graphs below show the general nature of the predicament. The purpose of this section will be to summarize only briefly the work of several weeks of observation and investigation of sample hemoglobin vs the reference spectrum that has been established.
The black line is the reference spectrum for hemoglobin that has been established through examination of the literature and available tabulated data. The red line is the average spectrum of approximately ten individuals over the same visible light wavelength range. Clearly there is a significant difference. A salient change that can be identified is the appearance of two strong peaks in the vicinity at approximately 397 nanometers (nm) and 448 nm. These strong peaks substitute themselves for the prominent expected peak at approximately 414 nm. The magnitude of absorbance can vary strongly according to concentration levels so the magnitude of the peaks so there must be some latitude given to the conclusions related to that aspect. Nevertheless, in general we see that the magnitude of absorbance is strongly reduced in the measured spectrum vs. the reference spectrum, especially in the range of 300-350nm.
The difficulty then becomes to explain these sharp differences between the spectrums. We can begin this analysis by examining the spectrum of the cultures as they have been developed from oral samples and examples of this work are shown below.
The graph above shows the spectrum of the culture as developed from oral samples. The primary variable within the graph is that of concentration. These graphs show the importance of concentration and how it can affect the geometry of the spectrum. It can be seen in general that an increase in concentration causes a corresponding increase in the absorbance; this is an expected consequence of Beer’s Law is it relates to spectroscopy. It is also of special interest to note that with sufficient concentrations that a second peak appears at approximately 448nm; this peak was simply not observable at low concentration levels. A calibration curve for the concentration of the culture mass has been developed from this work. A fair amount of culture mass is required to produce the highest concentration levels shown; these details of solution preparation can be described further as time progresses. It has already been reported that the solutions are produced primarily with the use of a strong alkalizer (sodium hydroxide) and heat; this method is successful in breaking down the filament nature of the culture to a sufficient degree.
There is an extremely important observation that is to be made from these graphs shown here. It is that the geometry of the peaks of the culture, as it has been developed from oral filament samples, is essentially identical to those deviations that are reported in the measured hemoglobin spectrum shown immediately prior. Within the culture spectrum, we see corresponding strong peaks at approximately 397nm and 448nm, exactly the same peak structure that is apparent in the hemoglobin spectrum under measurement in a sample of individuals. This suggests, in a highly logical and sensible fashion, that we should consider looking at the growth of the organism as a significant factor on the alteration of the hemoglobin spectrum as it is being directly measured.
The next issue of importance is to identify what is the underlying nature of the culture, or organism, spectrum. A spectrum in itself is valuable for its uniqueness, but the interpretation of the underlying spectrum is a much more involved affair. It involves a body of knowledge than can represent a profession it is own right. Some of the factors that affect the manifestation of the spectrum include the elements involved, the types of molecular bonds involved and the energy states of those atoms or molecules. I do not profess to know that science to that level of detail to immediately be able to interpret a visual light spectrum at the elemental and atomic bond level; by the same token the subject matter is not entirely foreign to me at this stage of study.
The process of investigation on my end is too laborious and time consuming to describe here, and the extensive time and effort extended is to be summarized in a succinct manner for your benefit In that protracted process, the spectrum of iron salts has also been examined in some detail. Suffice it to say that the spectrum of the ferric ion (3+) in solution matches remarkably well with the spectra culture and oral sample spectrums, especially in the range of 300 – 475nm where the deviations reported above most strongly occur. This was indeed the discovery that has motivated the intensive focus on iron with respect to this particular growth form, or “organism”, as it were. It is also the very reason why the qualitative chemical studies described above were developed. I have attempted to approach the problem from numerous angles to seek a consistent resolution to the problem. At this point, it seems fair to claim that such a consistent resolution has been reached. The role of iron in the oxidized state (3+) and its importance in the growth of the organism, from this researcher’s perspective, appears to be positively established.
The final graph in this section shows the degree of overlap that is occurring between the hemoglobin spectrum as it is being measured, the spectrum of the oral and culture samples, and the spectrum of the ferric ion (3+) in solution. The degree of similarity and overlap is actually quite remarkable and further solidifies the arguments that are presented within this paper.
In these graphs, the trends of each individual spectrum has been removed. This has the advantage of essentially normalizing the magnitudes of the graph so that we can focus on the degree of similarity of the absorption peaks. We have three different spectra shown here. The red line is the average measured spectrum of hemoglobin from a sample of approximately ten individuals. The black line is the spectrum of the “reference hemoglobin” as it has been obtained from the available public sources. The blue line is the spectrum of a dissolved ferric (3+) salt, specifically iron ammonium sulfate. There are some important observations to me made here that reiterate the degree of similarity that has been established prior. We see a very close match between the spectrums of the measured hemoglobin spectrum and the ferric ion (3+) in the lower half of the visible spectrum (350 – 475nm). This strongly suggests that the ferric (3+) form of’ iron is intimately involved in the deviation of the measured hemoglobin spectrum from the reference hemoglobin spectrum It is indeed the basis of this thesis, as the body of evidence established now demonstrates that this is exactly the case.
Secondly, we see that the magnitude of the spectrum of the ferric ion drops off radically in the upper half of the spectrum, i.e., 475 -700nm. This means that we would expect the ferric ion to have much less influence upon the spectrum of hemoglobin within that range. This is also exactly what we find. We notice that the reference hemoglobin spectrum and the measured hemoglobin spectrum actually compare reasonably well in the upper half of the visible light spectrum. This spectral analysis establishes the case quite strongly, therefore, that the ferric (3+) ion form plays a prominent role in the alteration of blood as it has been measured from several individuals.It is at this point that we must recall that deviation of the iron in the blood from the normal state of Fe(2+) to that of Fe(3+) presents serious health consequences. The most important of these is the inability of iron in the ferric state within blood to bind to oxygen. This leads us to the next topic below.
10. Methemoglobinemia and Hypoxia:
Now that certain results have been established, we must anticipate and begin to deal with the consequences of those results, should they be proven to be true. To reiterate, these results present themselves in two primary forms:
1. The evidence indicates that the growth form central to the Morgellons condition utilizes iron in a ferric (3+) state for its own growth, development and sustenance.
2. The evidence indicates that human blood is altered significantly as a result of the presence of the organism within the blood. This alteration encompasses a partial change of the oxidation state of the iron within the hemoglobin from a ferrous (2+) to a ferric (3+) state. Iron in the ferric state (3+) within hemoglobin is unable to bind to oxygen.
If these findings are true, we are required to pursue the next logical line of investigation, i.e, diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. There is a known medical condition for this change within the blood, and it is called methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobinemia is the transformation of normal hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) to a deoxygentated state. Methoglobinemia is caused by the oxidation of the ferrous ion (2+) to the ferric state (3+). Ferric iron is chemically useless for respiration45. Methemoglobinema can exist at varying levels, and is usually expressed as a percentage of the total hemoglobin of the blood. It is a normal state to have approximately one to two percent of methemoglobinemia (ferric ion) in the blood46.
Mild methemoglobinemia, on the order of 2 – 10%, is generally well tolerated by individuals and usual presents no obvious or apparent symptoms47. There is, nevertheless, a diminished capacity of the blood to carry oxygen at this stage and the effects are not to be dismissed as we shall discuss further. At levels from 10 -15%, cyanosis will occur with the skin taking on a blue/gray cast or appearance. Higher levels still, e.g, above 20% can cause dizziness, increased heart rate and anxiety. Levels greater that 50% are associated with breathlessness, fatigue, confusion, drowsiness. Comas, seizures may also occur at this level. Methemoglobinemia at 70% or greater is usually fatal48.
From the results of this paper, it the following hypothesis can be presented. It it is accepted that the Morgellons growth form is responsible for a partial alteration of the blood from a ferrous to a ferric state, it follows that those with a more serious manifestation of the condition may demonstrate a tendency toward increased levels of methemoglobinemia. Whether or not this is the case is to be determined by the medical profession at some time and place, however, initial investigative work on this proposal will be presented within this report. Although only a preliminary and tentative analysis, one spectrometric/chemical analysis made has indicated a potential level of an approximate 7% oxidation state (3+) in the average hemoglobin measurement of this report. This level would be without obvious visible symptoms as described earlier. This analysis requires further examination to substantiate that finding.
Obviously there are many purported and claimed manifestations and variations of the so-called “Morgellons” condition, and this paper is not able to encompass that scope or debate. The work of this researcher places a focus on what is perceived to be an originating growth form as identified through several years of observation and analysis of various sample types (primarily filamentous in nature.) This paper will simply not have the capacity to discuss all of the ramifications of diminished oxygen capacity of the blood; it will have to suffice at this point to state that this process of discovery must now begin. Some occasional comments on the subject will be presented as time and circumstance allow me. Degrees of hypoxia and its effect upon cellular metabolism will also become a point of investigation in our future. As a starter, please recall an opening statement that all energy to the body is dependent upon respiration.
Finally, to end this section for the time being, a visual representation of the nature of methemoglobinemia (deoxyhemoglobin) is repeated below for the reader’s reference.
The dexoxygenated heme molecule (model) shown with oxygen atoms removed (red) (left)
The oxygenated heme molecule(model) shown with oxygen atoms attached. (right)
11. Ionization and Bond Disassociation Energy : The Cost of Oxidation:
It requires energy to form molecules49. It requires energy to remove an electron, i.e., oxidize an element or molecule49. And it takes energy to break bonds50. What this means, in simple terms, is that the theft of energy from our cells to serve the metabolic requirements of a pathological organism comes at a price to our body and our health. The removal of an electron is called the ionization energy. These are referred to as the first ionization energy, second ionization energy, third ionization energy, etc. corresponding to the removal of one, two and three electrons respectively.. There is energy required to remove two electrons from iron in the elemental state to the oxidation state of iron (Fe2+). This oxidation state is the one that is most commonly found in nature. To remove an additional electron, and bring iron to the Fe(3+) state requires even more energy. Oxidation essentially represents the stealing of electrons from one element or molecule by another.
The first ionization energy for iron is 7.9 electron volts (eV) (~760 kilojoules (kJ) per mole), the second ionization energy is 16.2 eV (1560 kJ per mole) and the third ionization energy is 30.6 ev (2960 kJ per mole)51. What this shows us is that it takes almost twice as much energy to remove the electron to change the iron from the ferrous (Fe2+) state to the ferric (Fe3+) state as it did to remove two electrons to change it from the elemental form to the Fe(2+) state. From an energy standpoint, therefore, the oxidation of iron referred to in this paper requires a relatively strong energy investment.
To get some sense of what this energy level actually means, let us translate what is happening in the blood to something more tangible for us to visualize. If we assume a 5% reduction in oxygenated hemoglobin over a three month period (the approximate life cycle of red blood cells), this will translate to an energy requirement of approximately 3240 joules over this three month period.
[Humans have roughly 2.5E13 red blood cells; 280E6 molecules of hemoglobin in each red bllood cell; 7E21 molecules of hemoglobin in each red blood cell; four heme molecules per red blood cell; approx. 2.8E22 Fe2+ iron atoms in the human body; at 5% oxidation 1.4E21 atoms in the Fe(3+) state ; .0023 moles of iron in the Fe(3+) state, .0023(2960kJ/M – 1560kJ/M) = approx. 3260 joules over a three month period.]
It takes approximately one joule of energy to raise an apple over your head. If these approximate calculations are correct, this would be equal to raising roughly 3000+ apples over your head in a three month period. This equates to roughly three dozen presses per day; this is not exactly trivial since this energy expended should be serving your own interests vs. the metabolism of a detrimental pathogen. Regardless of the computations, the energy is stolen energy.
It also takes energy to break chemical bonds. In this case, we can at least look at the separation between the iron and oxygen atoms. The bond dissociation energy for the iron-oxygen bond is 409 kJ per mole52. Again, even though we are making some approximations, this leads to roughly another 940 joules of energy released in a damaging manner if we assume the same three month period. Add lifting another 1000 apples to your detriment.
And lastly, it takes energy to form molecules. This brings up the entire discussion of ligands again, as new molecules will form with the oxidized iron, many of them harmful to the human body. For example, the ferricyanide complexes is one of the most likely complexes to form from the altered iron, and it is toxic as well. To form that complex, or other complexes that result from the spectrochemical series, will require additional energy. From an energy standpoint alone, you are doing bench presses on a regular basis and your health is suffering in the process.
There is a cost for the oxidation of the iron in our bodies, and that cost is to one’s health.
12. Bacterial Requirements for Iron in the Blood:
For those patient enough to follow the course of this paper, it is fair to state that significant efforts have been expended, from both a laboratory and a research point of view, to demonstrate that changes in iron and the utilization of iron in a pathogenic sense are at the heart of the Morgellons issue, at least from the perspective of this researcher. The changes and impact upon the body have been demonstrated and they will continue to be so. For those that are inclined to accept conclusions more readily from the conventional literature, the following is provided from the section entitled, Chemistry and Life, The Battle for Iron in Living Systems53:
“A bacterium that infects the blood requires a source of iron if it is to grow and reproduce.”
Recognition of the truth and simplicity of this statement may have saved a great deal of time and effort, but this particular reference was not found until the same conclusion was reached from direct experience. The time and effort has not been lost by any means, as there is now a deeper understanding from whence this statement comes. Let us now add some complimentary information to the direct knowledge given to us from the statement above. First of all, it is true that the work does not positively identify the sub-micron spherical originating organism as a known or specific bacterium. It does, however, seem to be a most relevant consideration. At this point, it is best to refer the reader to a prior paper that expresses the proposition of essentially an “engineered” organism54. that combines the prokaryote, eukaryote and archaea life forms. The bacterial form is a subset of this larger life classification system and the above statement holds as true and relevant to the work. On a more general level, we can delve into the question further and ask whether bacterial forms are commonly involved in the consumption of iron. The answer is yes. From a variety of sources, we can only confirm further the findings of the current research; the fact that bacterial forms require iron for their survival is readily verifiable:
“Like their human hosts, bacteria need iron to survive and they must obtain that iron from the environment. While humans obtain iron primarily through the food they eat, bacteria have evolved complex and diverse mechanisms to allow them access to iron… Iron is the single most important micronutrient bacteria need to survive… understanding how these bacteria survived within us is a critical element of learning how to defeat them55.” “Bacteria metabolize iron as a food source and release iron oxide as a waste product…bacterial waste lowers pH56.” “The term iron bacteria does not refer to a specific genus or species but rather to those bacteria in which reduced iron plays an important role in their metabolism… A great variety of bacteria can be involved in this process. The “true” iron bacteria are those in which the oxidation of iron is an important source for their metabolic energy. This group is most often associated with filamentous or stalked forms…57“ “Bacterial requirements for growth include sources of energy, “organic” carbon (e.g., sugars and fatty acids) and metal ions (e.g., iron)…..Nutrient Requirements: These include sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and metal ions including iron. Bacteria secrete small molecules that bind iron (siderophores). Siderophores (with bound iron) are then internalized via receptors by the bacterial cell58.” “Siderophores are biosynthetically produced and secreted by many bacteria, yeasts, fungi and plants, to scavenge for ferric ion (Fe3+). They are selective iron-chelators that have an extremely high affinity for binding this trivalent metal ion….. The emerging overall picture is that ion metabolism plays an extremely important role during bacterial infections.59.” “The ability of pathogens to obtain iron from transferrins, ferritin, hemoglobin, and other iron-containing proteins of their host is central to whether they live or die..Some invading bacteria respond by producing specific iron chelators – siderophores – that remove the iron from the host sources60.”
“Iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth’s crust and forms a ready oxidation state. Bacteria use this as a source of energy and as a means of waste disposal.. Iron metabolism is also a significant part of bacterial virulence…It has been established experimentally by injecting iron soluble compounds into test animals with infections that adding more iron causes the bacteria to thrive….Bacteria put out compounds, called siderophores, which attract and bond free iron compounds by chemical processes; these are then oxidized and excreted as a byproduct61.” “Iron (Fe) has long been a recognized physiological requirement for life, yet for many organisms… its role extends well beyond that of a nutritional necessity. Fe(II) can function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms under both oxic and anoxic conditions and Fe(III) can function as a terminal acceptor under anoxic conditions for iron-reducing organisms62.” “Given the role of free iron in creating DNA damage, it is unsurprising that bacteria have evolved methods to scavenge it….Despite the sophisticated biochemical and genetic strategies that can be brought to bear upon bacteria, we still know remarkably little about the physical mechanisms of iron transport, storage, and regulation, and virtually nothing about iron trafficking and its insertion into metalloproteins. These areas are ripe for future work63.”
As a parting comment within this section, there is a class of siderophores produced by certain bacteria that bind in particular to iron in the Fe(3+) state64,65,66. These siderophores are called enterbactin. What distinguishes this class is an incredibly strong bond to the iron (i.e., chelation) in the 3+ state, and it can not be broken through normal physiological processes or with such proteins as transferrin. This type of siderophore is usually found in Gram-negative forms of bacteria. Readers may recall that several years ago gram stain tests were repeatedly performed on the bacterial-like organism under study and discussion here. The results of those tests were Gram-negative. Enterobactin and ferrichrome therefore emerge as important targets of further research within the iron dilemma.
The journey to the current state of knowledge has been a long one, and for that matter, it has been unnecessarily long. We can, nevertheless, take some solace in knowing that some findings of importance are before us. There is also now a stronger sense of direction of what is required and what is to be done. If you would like to hasten this process, you have the opportunity to do so67.
13. The Oral Filament and Red Wine Reaction Resolved
It has long been a mystery as to why there is such a definite and visible reaction, especially of color, between the oral filament samples and red wine or related solutions. This mystery has now been resolved with a combination of investigative chemical research and the knowledge of iron changes in the body. The reason for the strong reaction is the formation of a metal complex of Fe(3+) in combination with the pigments found in red wine. Once again, at least some knowledge of coordination chemistry in combination with transition metal characteristics proves fruitful. Grapes, red wine and many related fruits or vegetables contain a group of pigments called anthocyanins. A search of the literature will reveal that iron, especially in the ferric state (Fe3+), will form metal complexes with these pigments68,69,70,71,72. The color of many of these metal complexes is often a deep purple, exactly that which is known to occur in the combination of the oral filaments with the red wine.
It is also of interest to learn that the molecular structure of the complex, i.e, the combination of Fe(3+) with anthocyanins, has a chemical structure with some similarity to that of ferrichromes. Ferrichromes are a product of bacterial consumption of iron, and they involve the formation of strong chemical bonds that tie up the iron within a ferric metal complex.
It is the understanding of the chemistry of iron in its various states along with the important but more complex branch of coordination chemistry that has allowed us to understand the nature of the ferric iron – red wine reaction. This understanding provides one further level of verification and confirmation of the change of iron that occurs within the body as a direct result of the pathogenic metabolism.
14. Some Health Implications; The Value of the Holistic Approach to Medicine
For those that seek a pill to remedy the dilemmas of the Morgellons “situation”, you must seek elsewhere. My work will not offer such a simple path for you. The research of the past several years on the bio-engineering issues has been a journey of education in health, myself included. Out of this research I have developed a level of respect for the wholistic approach to medicine and for those who practice it well. Those who have this knowledge coupled with strong foundations of chemistry, biology and physics will earn even greater respect as they are likely to be our better sources for counsel.
Let us start with some of the controversy in language regarding the issue of a “condition” vs. a “disease”. As the work indicates that the general population is subject to the pathogenic forms under study, it becomes even a more sensitive issue as we confront our own involvement irrespective of our wishes or personal belief systems. I will start this discussion with reference to a rather hefty tome, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease73. This book may not be bedside reading for most of us, but in many ways it should be. It is a real eye opener for the uninitiated. For now, let us introduce just a few insights that this reference will provide to us. First, what pathology actually refers to, in the origin of the word, is suffering. We can play with semantics all that we wish, but those suffer in a biological sense will need to deal with the reality of the terms pathogen and disease. Cells, tissues and organs that sustain injury are at the root of the study of pathology. Study the textbook and reach your own conclusions as to the severity of affliction. It is a diminishment to the reality and seriousness of the issue if we classify the current situation as a “condition” for our own personal palatabilities and psychological comfort. It is difficult to deny the classification of “Morgellons” as a disease or as of pathogenic form if you look at the underlying mechanisms of damage that have taken and are taking place. I may not please the reader but that is not my purpose here; it is to confront and comprehend the reality of our existence be it kind or brutal.
The next topic concerns what we must read to get started with our education on pathology. Robbins’ book is roughly 1500 pages long. If we can digest even a portion of the first 40 pages, we have done ourselves a great service. It will be found that this introductory section alone will spell out the majority of the specific mechanisms and actions of injury to our health at the cellular level; this foundation will underlie the remainder of the book which will go on to address injury to further organs. A knowledge of cellular injury is crucial to our understanding of any disease and how it works its damage upon the body. It is not especially relevant at this stage of our discussion to single out the particular malady at hand; understand the mechanisms of cellular damage in general and tremendous progress can be made in the path to better health and health understanding. This particular book is more than 20 years old and yet the level of knowledge on how disease damages the body is evident, open and obvious to those that are willing to take a look at it. This knowledge can be applied to any circumstance of illness that I can foresee, past or present, including our current problems. It will be to our benefit to invest this effort for what awaits us as we learn to apply that knowledge. A standard and comprehensive book on pathology is at the very heart of medical knowledge and application; those with a wholistic approach to medicine that seek the source of a problem versus a prescribed band-aid deserve our greatest respect and honor. This particular chapter of this paper will never be completed as the pathways and connections within the body never cease to amaze me. I am an infant in these wonders myself and must admit my own negligence with respect to the understandings of physiology, disease and health. In many ways, the course to better health has been spelled out for us many years, even decades, ago and it is our job to at least acquaint ourselves with the work that has already been done for us.
This preparation established, let us at least briefly mention what the four systems of damage (i.e., vulnerabilities) are to the cells in our bodies through disease74: These criteria form the very basis of pathology:
1. Damage to the cell wall or membrane.
2. Aerobic respiration (i.e., oxygen based respiration) and the production of energy within the cells.
3. The creation of enzymes and proteins within the cells.
4. Preservation of the genetic integrity of the cells.
My work indicates, at this point, that every one of these critical factors underlying damage to our bodies is underway or is likely to be underway within the mechanisms of the Morgellons pathogenic forms. It is much harder to prove that any one of them is not involved than it is to make the case that they are in effect. If this is to be accepted, the very core, foundation and definition of “disease” is in full bloom here and it is only a diversion to avoid that unpleasant reality. The necessary job is to understand the forces at work in great detail from a biochemical perspective and then get to work on the solutions to the problems that they pose for us a species and as a whole. The stakes are serious enough; make your decision as to when and how your are going to become involved in your own survival and those that follow.
Let us give some introductory examples or thoughts as to how and why these factors are likely to be involved.
In terms of damage to the cell wall or membrane, the damage to the red blood cell walls has been aptly documented. Please see the previous paper entitled “A Mechanism of Blood Damage75“.
In terms of aerobic respiration, it is also now clear that the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is expected to decreaseThe prospect of this finding was first recorded in March of this year. Sufficient opportunity has been afforded to return to laboratory studies during the past few weeks and the original findings have been confirmed at a higher level. In the interim, a greater understanding of the likely molecular structure and bonding arrangement of the proteinaceous complex has been deduced, or at least hopefully this is the case. Sufficient resources, had they become available at an earlier time, would have rapidly advanced the painstaking studies that have brought us to the current state of knowledge. This state of knowledge remains in the majority, highly unfinished, but it is believed that an important level of progress has likely been achieved under the current work. as a result of the increased oxidation level (Fe3+) of iron with the blood. Recall that oxygen does not bind to hemoglobin when the iron is in the Fe (3+) state. If the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is diminished, the production of energy (ATP) is also expected to be diminished.
With regard to enzyme (most enzymes are proteins) and protein production within the cells, it is a fact that essentially all cellular reactions that take place within the body require enzymes for those reactions to occur76. And, as an example of the tie between iron and enzymes, approximately one-third of all enzymes require metal ions77 and iron is also an essential component of many proteins and enzymes78. If cellular metabolism is interfered with (i.e, the production of energy by the mitochondria) then the catalytic reactions involving enzymes within the cells are disrupted.
Lastly, oxidation in the body produces free radicals79,80; an excess of oxidation can exacerbate this issue. Free radicals can damage DNA and can result in the alteration of a given gene81. Iron is involved in the production of DNA82. The alteration of the iron state of the blood can therefore also jeopardize the genetic integrity of the cell.
What we see, therefore is that any alteration or interference of iron metabolism in the body leads to serous and systemic degradation in human health and functioning. In addition, the very mechanisms of damage (as defined from a pathological perspective) to the cells are identified as being factors of the Morgellons situation and they fully satisfy the definition of a diseased organism. It is this comprehensive and systemic effect upon the body which necessitates the call to integrative and wholistic medicine with a strong foundation in biochemistry. It is not anticipated at this point that a myopic perspective on either symptoms or effects is likely to be beneficial at the level that is required to establish health.
15. Identification of physiological conditions that are in probable conjunction with the condition:
Based upon the understanding that has been presented thus far, there exists a set of physiological conditions that is expected to be more likely to occur in the “Morgellons affected individual” than in the general population. It is a probabilistic offering only. This information is not intended to be diagnostic in any sense and the postulates are presented solely as a result of analytic and observational research. The information is offered to the medical community for their evaluation and assessment as the issue is approached with greater seriousness in the future. There is no guarantee or implied guarantee that any of the following symptoms or conditions will occur; only that they may deserve consideration by the medical community as the situation is researched further. The list of candidate effects upon the body may or may not include:
1. An increased level of acidity in the body (may be most easily assessed by urine pH testing).
2. Diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
3. Lower energy levels due to interference in the ATP production cycle; greater fatigue.
4. The presence of filament structures (ferric iron – anthocyanin complexes) within oral samples.
5. Recent research indicates that the urinary tract may be equally affected with the presence of the filament structures.
6. The presence of a bacterial-like component (chlamydia-like) within or surrounding the red blood cells.
7. Chronic decreased body temperature.
8. Respiratory problems, including proclivities toward a chronic cough or walking pneumonia-like symptoms.
9. Skin manifestation at the more developed levels (the skin is an excretory organ).
10. The impact of increased oxidation, greater free radical presence and their damaging effects upon the body.
11. Tooth decay or loss.
12. The smoking population may exhibit an increased incidence of the condition due to additional oxygen inhibition within the blood.
13. Liver toxicity, gall bladder and bile duct complications.
14. Potential reduction in arterial transport; increased blood pressure.
15. Potential proclivity toward increased cancer incidence due to an expected increase in aneroboic metabolism.
16. Additional unidentified systemic damage in conjunction with the pathological mechanisms of cell injury identified.
16. A Proposed Spectral Analysis Project:
A relatively simple method to assess whether or not the oxygen content of the blood is abnormally low has been created. The method uses the combination of an ordinary computer scanner along with statistical analysis. Before this method is outlined further, I would like to give due credit to Fathima Shihana, BSc with the authored paper entitled “A Simple Quantitative Bedside Test to Determine Methemoglobin” from the Annals of Emergence Medicine83. This paper has served as the inspiration for the approach described here.
A spectrometer is a relatively costly instrument and it availability is limited. The paper above describes a method whereby an ordinary scanner can be used to establish a calibrated relationship between the color of blood (as recorded by a color scanner) and the loss of oxygen content (methoglobinemia) within that same blood. The cleverness of the idea resides in the fact that a color scanner, along with suitable analysis software, is essentially a spectrometer in its own right. Any color combination may be broken down into quantitative measurements of the red, blue and green channels of that color, and a scanner ingeniously serves as a readily acceptable spectrometer in its own right.
The paper referred to deals with situations of methoglobinemia that be lethal or extremely injurious to life; the project here is operating on a much more subtle level in an effort to determine both lesser magnitudes of the condition (i.e., asymptomatic) and finer gradations within. Without the advantage of calibration against known lab standards, the scanner still serves as an excellent and simple tool for relative changes in the condition of the blood. Highly oxygenated blood is a rich red in color. Oxygen deprived blood is more bluish and color and blood devoid of oxygen is brown. Our goal with the current project is to be able to determine relatively minor (but nevertheless significant) shifts in the color of blood from red toward the blue portion of the spectrum.
As shown below, a modern computer color scanner can be used as a three channel (red, green, blue) spectrometer and it can be used to establish a highly unique signature for an appropriate sample. The proposed project of blood spectral analysis processes the sample data in a unique fashion, but the spirit of the research paper referred to above remains the foundation of the approach.
In practice, it has been found that the red channel is sufficient to identify color shifts within the blood that indicate a decreased oxygen supply to the blood; If you would like to participate in this research project, please send correspondence to email@example.com and the particulars can be described. The only essential requirement to participate in the project is that of a color scanner. Please be aware that no individual feedback or assessment will be provided to those that participate in this project; any data will be handled in a statistical sense and any data analysis will be presented to the public in an anonymous fashion. If the medical community becomes involved in this research the prospects of discussion may be able to widen.
What follows below is an example of the processing that the project entails, including the scan of a drop of blood by two separate individuals and the statistical processing of a group of individuals that have contributed to the research project:
A scan of the blood of the individual. This individual has no outward manifestations of the “Morgellons” symptoms. The red channel of the spectrum has been analyzed from a statistical perspective. The individual has a relative rank in the +86% (-100% to +100%) percentile, indicating a shift of the color toward the red portion of the spectrum. This dominance of the red portion of the spectrum indicates more highly oxygenated blood within the group sample.
A scan of the blood of the individual. This individual has stated and demonstrated significant skin manifestations of the “Morgellons” symptoms. The red channel of the spectrum has been analyzed from a statistical perspective. The individual has a relative rank in the -92% percentile (-100% to 100%), indicating a shift of the color toward the blue portion of the spectrum. This shift towards the blue portion of the spectrum indicates a decrease in the oxygen level of the blood of the individual. This finding is in accordance with the primary thesis of this paper.
The spreadsheet analysis for the sample group. The worksheet analyzes the statistical properties of the sample group (11 individuals) with respect to the average spectrums of the red, green and blue channels. In practice, it is found that the red channel shifts in the spectrum are sufficient to characterize the deviations in color. The color changes, or shifts, are an expression of the oxygen content of the blood. The sample group at this time is limited and also has a high probability of being polarized with a limited data set. A broader sample group is expected to reveal a more even distribution of oxygen supply and deficiency. If you would like to contribute to this research project, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for the particulars. No individual data will be provided to participants; all analysis and presentation will be from an anonymous statistical perspective.
17. A Review of Proposed Mitigation Strategies:
With the understanding of how a malady affects the body, we are in a stronger position to develop strategies to mitigate the damage. The better approach is to put a stop to the problem, but that requires a broader coordination and alliance than has been achieved thus far. We can at least consider and establish some defenses while the forces of political and social organization continue to arm themselves. What follows here are merely suggestions to consider; they are in no way to interpreted as therapeutic or diagnostic in approach. Each of the following strategies has been developed as a direct response to laboratory conditions or academic study; they are not formulated within any formal medical framework. Each individual is responsible for consulting with the medical professionals of their choice and the following information is provided solely for consideration within that consultation. Many of these items have been mentioned previously and the list has accumulated in a gradual fashion. Understanding the extent of the problem, it is not intended that the “list” is complete; in fact it would seem that it is only a beginning. It will be noticed that many of these strategies can apply to human health in general. The primary mechanisms of many diseases are actually few in number and these have been enumerated in the discussion of pathology above.
All being said, let us proceed with some strategies for mitigation of the “condition“.
1. Alkalization of the body would appear to be a beneficial practice in general with respect to disease84,85,86. It has been identified that the organism flourishes within an acidic environment87,88. It is also known that biochemical processes usually take place within a specific pH range, including the growth of pathogenic forms89,90,91.
2. The research indicates that excessive oxidation is detrimental to health. This topic has also been discussed previously in an earlier paper92. Common oxidizers include the bleaches, peroxides and ozone. The research indicates, from the vantage point of this researcher, that internal use of these substances is likely to be harmful to human health. We do not solve the problem of oxidation within the body by necessarily increasing the intake of oxygen. Indeed, one of primary arguments of this paper is that the blood of the affected individual has been oxidized in a fashion that has the net effect of decreasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Excessive and misplaced oxidation also creates free radicals, which as been noted, “wreak havoc in the living system.”We do not solve that problem by taking more oxygen; we work on the problem by hindering the oxidative process. The manner in which this process is conducted in the chemical world is known as reduction. In common terms, the appropriate term is that of an anti-oxidant, and many of us are familiar with that parlance.
I take stock in the following statement, again from Coltrane93:
“Once free radicals are formed, how does the body get rid of them? There are several systems that contribute to termination or inactivation of free radical reactions:
The statements here are direct and understandable and come from a standard textbook in pathology. It is relatively straightforward that if a problem of excessive oxidation exists within the body, one should strongly consider the role that anti-oxidants play in reversing those effects. It is equally inadvisable, from this researcher’s point of view, to compound the issue with the addition of known strong oxidizers internal to the body
Vitamins, across the board (A, B, C, D,E) are powerful antioxidants. An additional powerful antioxidant identified in the research is that of glutathion. The role of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the inhibition of the culture growth has already been described. There remain many additional anti-oxidants of importance in human health94.
3. Increasing the utilization and absorption of existing iron within the body. Iron is certainly one of the most important elements of the body. Referring to the Linus Pauling Institute95,
“Iron has the longest and best described history among all the micronutrients. It is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. In humans, iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes.”
One of the findings from the study of coordination chemistry described above is that iron has the ability to bond with numerous other molecules. For example, iron (in the Fe2+ state) preferentially bonds to oxygen. If the iron is altered to the Fe(3+) state. it will no longer bond to oxygen. In this modified state, the iron will then form additional bonds to other molecules, many of which are harmful as has also been described above. The idea of a chelator is to keep the oxygen bound in a protected state where it can not bind so easily with other, often harmful, molecules. Heme itself, within hemoglobin, is a classic example of a chelator. If our iron has been altered to where it becomes free or bound to other molecules (potentially harmful ligands), the solution to that problem would not seem to be to take more iron, any more than increasing the oxygen intake is expected to resolve a problem of oxidation.
The more effective solution would appear to be to keep the iron in a chelated state, where it is bound and protected by the expected molecules and proteins such as heme in the body. This therefore suggests that increased attention would be devoted to the study and role of chelators in human health. It does not seem reasonable that we would automatically pursue a path of increasing iron intake; indeed this process can be quite harmful and dangerous to human health. Again, the importance of consultation with the medical professionals of choice is unequivocally stated; the stakes of the issues we are speaking of are of the highest importance.
4. The inhibition of the growth of iron-consuming bacteria (and bacteria-archea like) forms.
We know now that the organism uses iron for its existence and growth. It appears that iron in the further oxidized state (i.e, Fe3+) is of primary benefit to the organism. We also know, in retrospect, that iron is a critical metabolic element within many of the bacteria (or bacteria-archaea like forms). One strategy that develops with such organism is that of inhibiting the ability of the organism to access or metabolize the iron. This once again brings up the idea of a chelator. This topic has also been discussed in an earlier paper, and introduced the role of human breast milk and its resistance to bacterial forms in infant growth96. Lactoferrin (found in whey) was identified as a potential strong chelating protein within that research. Transferrin is another protein chelator within the human digestive tract that serves a similar purpose, i.e., binding of the iron and consequently it becomes less accessible to iron-consuming bacteria (or bacteria-archea like forms).
5. Improving the flow of bile in the system to further alkalize the body and aid the digestive system. The liver, the gall bladder and the bile duct play an extremely important role in alkalizing the digestive tract. For those that demonstrate a persistent acidic condition within the body it may be beneficial to learn of the importance of bile production and its alkalizing function. An excellent introduction to the physiology of this important aspect of human health may be found at the following site:
An acidic condition can easily be created with a blockage of the bile duct, as the bile is the alkalizing agent within the intestine. Gall bladder removal and gall stones appear to be a frequent occurrence; this would suggest that overloads of toxicity to the liver could well be at the root of this problem. Non-invasive methods of breaking down gall stones (conglomeration of bile) are available to consider, such as Chanca Piedra (breakstone). If the bile flow is restricted, an acidic condition within the body is expected to exist. Knowledge of the physiology of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct and its relationship to digestion may be beneficial in mitigating the consequences of acidity within the body and digestive system.
6. Detoxification of the liver (toxin removal and the breakdown of lipids(fats)). One of the many functions of the liver is to break down fats with the use of bile. If the bile is not being produced or flowing within the digestive system, the fats will accumulate within the liver. The liver also removes toxins from the body. If the liver is not functioning correctly (e.g, from an accumulation of fats or the lack of bile flow) serious consequences to health will ensue.
As an aside and as an unreported event, I received information indirectly many years ago from a U.S. Naval pathologist. This pathologist was provided certain microphotographs of blood samples that I had taken. The research was not mature to the point that it is now, however, it was mentioned by the pathologist that the condition I was reporting is indeed commonly being observed. This pathologist, to the best of my recollection, attributed the source of the problem to the failure of a particular enzyme within the liver. At this point I cannot recall the name of the specific enzyme. It is nevertheless of great interest to understand that the liver now exists as one of the primary targets of systematic failure within the Morgellons research that is underway.
There are many serious consequences to a liver that is overloaded with toxins. Another example of damage, beyond fatty accumulation, is what is called lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is caused by the presence of free radicals and it involves the deterioration of fats through an oxidation process. In layman terms, the situation can be equated to that of rancid, or spoiling fats.
The value of knowledge on detoxification of the liver now becomes apparent. The free flow of bile (indicated by peristalsis, or rhythmic contractions of the intestine) may be one of the first conditions to indicate improved digestive activity. Liver detoxification is an important subject in its own right and is likely worthy of serious investigation, study and application by each of us. The purpose here is to indicate simply another aspect of human health that is deeply enmeshed in the path to better health, and that is a smoothly functioning liver.
7. Enzymes. What we are learning here is that the road to better health and the prevention of disease, regardless of the source, requires an integrative process. It may require more effort than many of us are willing to expend. We soon become aware, especially when we seek answers to the serious problems posed above, that we must start to learn how the body actually works. We must start to learn the relationships of one part of the system to another. It is a fascinating and hopefully beneficial process if you are willing to pursue that pathway, but it will not be accomplished without effort on your part. It requires the same of me.
Another simple example of another important relationship is the following. Essentially every chemical reaction that takes place in the body requires the use of enzymes. With an understanding and appreciation of this profound statement, my appreciation for understanding the nature and role of enzymes is now earnest. Enzymes are actually an amazing chemical phenomena; they essentially cause something to happen that would not happen otherwise, and the enzymes themselves are not even changed in the process. They provide an alternative energy pathway to get something done, and with the overall reaction requiring less energy in the process. One analogy given is that of a tunnel through a mountain; you can either climb over the mountain and expend a great deal of energy and effort (and maybe never make it over the top) or you can go through a tunnel if one happens to be there. An enzyme is somewhat analogous to the tunnel though the mountain.
An example of an enzymatic, or catalytic, reaction, is shown in the video segment within this report and above. In this case, hydrogen peroxide is added to iron (ferric) oxide. What the observer sees is a vigorous bubbling reaction. What is occurring in the reaction is that the hydrogen peroxide is being decomposed, or broken down into oxygen and water. The iron in the reaction serves as the catalyst. If you study this reaction long enough, you will find the iron oxide is not changed no matter how long you watch it. It is counter-intuitive, as when we see vigorous bubbles reacting to iron, we expect the iron to visibly change or deteriorate in the process. It does not. But the reaction would not occur without the iron present.
[Edit : Dec 01 2011 :
A drop of one or two degrees in body temperature can have a marked effect on body metabolism and enzyme activity. It is expected that this level of decrease in body temperature could correspondingly decrease enzyme activity on the order of 10% to even 40%97,98. As we have learned of the one to one correspondence between metabolism and enzyme activity, major impairment of our metabolism and functioning is expected with decreased body temperatures. There is an accumulated body of information that indicates that the body temperatures of the general population may now well be lower by this same amount of one to two degrees. This topic exists as a focal point of future research.]
Now that we see more clearly the importance and function of enzymes, we can also understand why a lacking enzyme within the liver might be very serious business. It therefore behooves us to add an additional field of study to our pursuits in biochemistry and health restoration, and this is the study of enzymes. We must learn what enzymes are likely to be involved within the systems that are known to be failing (circulation, respiration, digestion, etc) and what can be done to restore the deficiencies. Once again, I can see no alternative to holistic and integrative medicine and health research in the solution to the problems before us.
In summary, I now see five major challenges before us with the “Morgellons” issue based upon the research that I have conducted to date:
1. The iron within the blood, to a partial degree, is being changed in a way that it no longer binds with oxygen at the normal levels that are expected. This same iron is being used by the organism to sustain its own existence and growth. Diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is therefore expected to occur in coincidence with the severity of the condition.
2. The presence of free radicals are likely to increase in number and extent as a result of the oxidation process mentioned immediately above. Free radicals are known to “wreak havoc in the living system”, as has been mentioned earlier.
3. The altered iron (Fe3+ vs Fe2+) now binds to other molecules, many of them toxic or harmful to health, instead of oxygen as is expected. Several of these alternative ligands are known respiratory inhibitors, and therefore further exacerbate the failures in respiration.
4. The bacteria-like form, which appears to be at the origin of the pathogen, itself binds to oxygen to support its own existence. This is in addition to the consumption of iron already identified. This combination further increases the severity of consequence to human health.
5. The presence of the organism, as encountered, appears to be extensive within the body. It appears to occur within the circulatory, digestive and urinary systems as a minimum.
A few, and only a few, suggestions have been given about how these problems can be approached. These strategies are by no means intended to encompass all needs before us. The will hopefully, however, provide a stepping stone to the further research that exists before us. These problems will never be solved with ignorance or apathy. I encourage you to participate in the process of resolution and accountability, and to support those who act on that same behalf.
Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 15, 2011
Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident. Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.
A DISCOVERY AND A PROPOSAL Clifford E Carnicom
Feb 22 2010 Edited Jun 02 2011
Edited Jun 12 2011
Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident. Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.
A set of conditions that leads to the enhanced growth of the “bacterial-like” components of the cultures under study has been identified. This will be referred to as the discovery aspect of this paper.
A set of conditions that apparently leads to the inhibition of the growth of the “bacterial-like” components has also been identified. This will be referred to as the proposal aspect of this paper.
These bacterial-like forms comprise two of the four primary components that have been repeatedly identified as being distinctly characteristic of the so-called “Morgellons’s condition. The additional two forms are that of the filament and erythrocytic forms, respectively, as enumerated within numerous earlier papers (e.g., Morgellons : A New Classification). The bacterial-like forms are at the crux of the research on this condition, as they appear to be the precursors and prerequisites to the matured development that encompasses all four forms. The existence of the bacterial-like (chlamydia-like and mycoplasma-like) forms can only be established with certainty at sufficient microscopic examination (approximately 10,000x).
Now for additional details on the discovery aspect of this paper. A general statement will be made, and then I will expand upon this statement with additional information:
“Given that a hydroxyl free radical exists within an acidic environment with sufficient nutrients, the growth of the Morgellons bacterial-like organisms in that same medium will increase rapidly in the presence of oxidizers.”
Let us now discuss how this statement has evolved and what it means.
Hundreds of various culture trials have been analyzed over the past several months since it was learned that the four components (as a minimum) can be cultivated in a controlled environment external to the body. These culture studies continue. It is these cultures that have allowed many conclusions and inferences to be drawn on various aspects that affect the growth of the pathogens under study. Some of the aspects that have been considered include variation in the culture medium (agar, wines, simulated wines, broths, etc.), acid or alkalinity (pH), conductivity variation, ion analyses, nutrients and potential inhibitors to growth, for example. Some of the approaches and assessments have been reached through a combination of trial and error, experimentation and intuition; the majority of them have been reached through the prolonged and progressive accumulation of various rationales and study. The general statement above has been reached through a combination of all of the above.
Culture Trials Under Examination
Rather than detail all of the various combinations that have been evaluated over the many preceding months, let us focus now on more recent developments that seem to be especially important with respect to the growth and the inhibition of the pathogens.
One of the changes that has occurred during the last several weeks is to shift the majority of the cultures to the use of white wines instead of red wines. Solution based chemistry by itself has many advantages, but one of the needs that has arisen is to develop a colorless or clear solution based culture so that analysis and observation become more straightforward. This idea was successful and numerous advantages have resulted from this switch. In addition, we learn that growth, at least at the preliminary stages, is not affected by whether a red wine or a white wine is involved (i.e., tannin consideration, etc.). Indeed, a “simulated wine” culture has also been developed with some success, and this has the extended advantage of being both transparent and of known chemical composition. This level of control may become even more important in the future, but for the time being, white wines are simple to use and accomplish the immediate purpose. Red wines have the known advantage of being able to produce the culminating filament form; not enough time has elapsed yet to determine if this remains the case for white wines. Agar cultures were the first to be developed some time ago, but they offer no distinct advantages at this time.
The next item to consider is the role of iron. It may be recalled from earlier reports that an interest in potential iron consumption and the metabolism of iron has been expressed. This remains the case. The cultures will grow in white wine alone, but the growth appears without doubt to be enhanced with the addition of a small amount of iron sulfate to the solution. During some of the trials that use a combination of white wine and iron sulfate, an additional component of hydrogen peroxide was introduced into the culture. It is at this point that a dramatic increase in the growth rate and extent of the culture was noted. Under these circumstances, it is not unusual to be able to record and observe the bacterial-like stage of growth occurring within a matter of hours. This is in major contrast to the use of wine alone, where a minimum of several days will usually be necessary. The filament growth stage generally takes anywhere from weeks to months to develop and it does seem in part to depend upon temperature.
This particular reaction of sudden growth is of much interest and it has deserved further and detailed consideration. As we delve into this question, a particular chemical reaction of note emerges, known as Fenton’s Reaction1,2(discovered in 1894). The essence of Fenton’s reaction is as follows : the iron ion (+2) when added to hydrogen peroxide, forms the iron ion in the +3 state, the OH- ion (i.e., the hydroxide ion) and the OH (neutral) radical, also called the hydroxyl radical.
The hydroxyl radical (OH neutral) is of tremendous interest in our case. What is the ‘hydroxyl radical” and why is it important? The hydroxyl radical is what is known as a “free radical” and it has major implications in biology, health and disease. I am not a chemist by profession and those that are may choose to engage themselves; I continue to hope that they shall. I am, however, sufficiently motivated in a broad array of disciplines to seek answers to important questions and problems of need and we have more than enough of them for us all.
A free radical is a compound that in general seeks to react, because of an electron imbalance, with something else. In more technical terms, a free radical is a substance with one or more unpaired electrons.3 As one of many examples of the consequences of the this particular free radical, we note the following:
“In cells and tissues, such particles can attack a host of surrounding biomolecules to produce new free radicals, which, in turn, attack yet other compounds. Thus, the formation of a single free radical can initiate a large number of chemical reactions that are ultimately able to disrupt the normal operations of cells”.4
Furthermore, this particular “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS) is just about at the top of the list in nature as essentially one of the most reactive oxidants known, only after Fluorine as shown in the following table:5
Oxidation potential, V
Oxidation is the process in which atoms, molecules or ions lose electrons. An oxidizing agent is a chemical reagent that oxidizes, or takes electrons away from other atoms, molecules or ions.6
Now that we know that the hydroxyl radical is extremely reactive (and damaging to biology), let us continue to make sense of that which has been observed. Fenton’s reaction is self-standing, and it does not need the culture to exist. Fenton’s reaction is a reaction that says if we have the iron ion present (+2) and if we have hydrogen peroxide available, we will end up with the hydroxyl radical formed. It does not say anything about the culture and what has been observed, i.e, an explosion of growth in the presence of Fenton’s reaction. What can be said about the culture is that if Fenton’s reaction takes place in the culture, then we have an explosion of growth that takes place. It is reasonable to surmise, then, that if the hydroxyl radical is present in the culture, that growth then takes off explosively. Now the question that comes up is whether or not we are likely to have the hydroxyl radical in our bodies. The answer is yes, as it is an expected product of metabolism.7,8
The next question that we must ask is whether or not the bacterial-like organisms occur commonly within the human species. There are numerous reports that address the reality of that situation, and it will simply be stated here that the evidence presents itself in the affirmative. It is reasonable, therefore, to suggest that the conditions for expanded growth of this organism set are likely to exist on a larger scale, and that we should realize the serious health issues that are likely to ensue.
There is, therefore, legitimate concern for certain health conditions that are likely to be prevalent. In addition, the specific chemical and biological conditions that underlie this concern may have in part been identified and established. The analysis of the conditions and the basis for the concern result from direct biological observation and study over an extended period of time. The basis for the analysis is an extensive set of culture studies that are a direct result of the research on the Morgellons condition.
An additional set of observations concerns the use of and presence of oxidizers, in general, within the culture environment (beyond that of hydrogen peroxide). It is found, in general, beyond that of Fenton’s reaction and the use of hydrogen peroxide, that oxidizers in general enhance the growth rate and extent of the cultures. These studies include additional items from the list above, such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Specifically, sodium hypochlorite (conventional bleach), sodium chlorite (may be sold as “MMS”) and calcium hypochlorite (may be sold as MMSII) all enhance the growth of the culture in the presence of an added iron solution. This observation raises serious questions, in the eyes of this researcher, as to whether increased growth of the “organisms” under study may in fact result from the use of chemicals of an oxidative nature (at least when used internally). Oxidation and the creation of free radicals with the use of chemical reagents in this family is an additional complication that is not appealing or attractive to me at this time. As one example of the concern held by a manufacturer (in this case, related to air filtration), it is stated that :
“Some new air cleaning devices are using free radicals or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) to “oxidize” indoor air. Free radicals have been shown to be damaging to human health. Testing is lacking on the by-products of the reactions between free radicals and the components of indoor air.
[and from the same source:]
Here is a quote from a brochure on another “cure-all for indoor air” product. It is a cause for concern. “When the HVAC system is in operation the cell creates an Advanced Oxidation Process consisting of Hydroxyl Radicals, Super Oxides, Hydroperoxides (Hydrogen Peroxide), UV light and ozonides (ozone).” It goes on to say: “All are friendly oxidizers. By friendly oxidizers we mean oxidizers that revert back to oxygen and hydrogen after the oxidation of the pollutant.” However, these are not “friendly oxidizers.” They are well known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or free radicals and are involved in a whole host of health problems from cancer to heart disease.“9
As a further clarification of the relationship between oxidation and free radicals, consider the following statement:10
There is more that can be said here, particularly in respect to the health related issues of free radicals and in particular the hydroxyl radical. I, too, am in a continual state of learning. There are some individuals that state or claim, at an anecdotal level, that progress has resulted from the use of such oxidizing products. One immediate question that arises is whether we are referring to external or internal application. I will defer any assessment on this position until the research is at a more advanced state. I must, nevertheless, in the interest of time progress to the next issue, and that is the proposal that results from the current study.
Please recall the dogmatic qualification at the beginning of this report; no medical advice, diagnosis or assessment of any kind is being made here. I am making information available that you may or may not wish to consider in consultation with the health professional of your choosing.
The question that naturally arises when the growth of a culture is enhanced is whether or not this growth can be hindered, impeded or stopped. The ultimate desire is, of course, to kill the organism(s) without damaging the host. It is a formidable problem in this case. I understand the question and that millions across the globe may be or will be asking it. It is the natural and easy question to ask but, unfortunately, the answers may not be any more forthcoming than the tribulations that have brought us to the current state of knowledge. These inherent difficulties do not even begin to address the lack of proper resources to tackle the problem. It has always been my viewpoint that the proper means of addressing the current situation begins with the simple and factual identification of the particular “organisms” and environmental pollutants under study. Such an identification has not taken place and there is no real prospect of this occurring in a comprehensive and honest fashion in the immediate future. My thoughts on this subject are expressed rather thoroughly in the recent paper that I have referenced.11 It is hopeful that the central tenets of that paper can someday be proven wrong, but in the meantime, effort must be directed toward the more impending and obvious need for suppression of growth, at least within the culture environment that has been established. What I shall present here is a summary of the progress of the work in that direction. The general strategy to be employed is that the understanding of the conditions that support growth may well lead us to the eventual repression of that same growth.
We can begin the work on the problem by recalling a couple of the more salient observations that have been made.
In the culture environment, it has been established that the organism(s) flourish within an acidic environment. In addition, it has also been stated in earlier reports that many biochemical reactions only take place within a narrow pH [acid or alkaline] range12,13,14. Therefore, one of the first strategies to consider is to change the acidity or alkalinity of the growth environment and see if progress results. What has been observed in the cultures thus far is that an increase to the alkaline side does indeed appear to inhibit the growth of the culture. It does NOT “kill” the “organism(s)”, specifically the bacterial-like forms, but it does appear to put them into a state of dormancy or stasis. At this point, nothing can be stated to extinguish the organism(s) in their entirety. As has mentioned extensively in prior reports, the structures have been subjected to extreme chemical and heat conditions and the potential, if not the capability, to survive remains intact.
Nevertheless, potential dormancy is a preferable alternative to active growth. There is a great deal of literature in the health fields that extols the virtues and benefits of a shift to the alkaline side within the human diet and body. There are many individuals in these fields that emphatically declare that many diseases and ill conditions are a direct result of the acidic diet and acidic state of current generations. There are many resources that contrast alkaline diets in opposition to acidic diets, and it becomes difficult to argue with the merits of the foodstuffs of an alkaline diet15. There are health professionals that claim that the pH of the urine is one of the methods16 by which the body can be assessed with respect to its acidic or alkaline state and that discuss the respective health concerns that accompany the acidic condition. There are also some individuals that think that alkalizing the diet is a meaningless and worthless venture. The first part of the proposal, therefore, is that the effects of alkalizing the growth medium, be it a culture dish or the human body through a chosen diet, be considered as one potential mitigating factor to the damages that have been observed. I will leave it to the reader to pursue this avenue of research in consultation with the health professionals of their choice. If additional information in the laboratory setting becomes available that affects the specifics of the current observations, I will continue to make that information freely available.
Now let us talk further on the subjects of oxidation and free radicals, which brings us to the second aspect of the current “proposal”. The evidence at this point shows that oxidation, in general, increases the growth within the stated culture medium. The growth rate is quite dramatic and has been verified by observation under the microscope at high magnification. The chlamydia-like and mycoplasma-like forms grow explosively under the oxidative conditions that have been developed.
The obvious approach to reversing the results of oxidation is to consider the use of anti-oxidants.
At this time, a specific interest in seeking an anti-oxidant to the hydroxyl radical has been pursued. The topic of research is therefore, at this stage, that of seeking a “hydroxyl scavenger”, i.e,, a compound or agent that will combine with the free hydroxyl radical and form something that is inert or less damaging than the original radical. The work here has been conducted solely with the objective of reducing the growth rate within the culture medium. However, as in the case of alkalization of the diet and body, there are many health professionals that will pronounce the merits of anti-oxidants and their beneficial effects on human health. There is a plethora of literature and research on the effects of oxidation and free radicals to human health. This is also a subject that can be discussed and researched at great length; again I will have to forego this in the interest of time and progress to the reader.
Three such candidates have been identified in a search of the literature thus far; this list includes ascorbate, glycerin and “ester salts”. 17,18,19 It is anticipated that many other candidates will be added to the list if this research gains further momentum. The specific ester salt that has been developed and applied in this test case is sodium citrate; numerous potential candidates could be developed from the patent that has been referenced.
Note: Edit of Jun 02, 2011 – Please note this additional candidate and reference to be included in any future inhibition analysis, i.e., garlic compounds:“Abstract: The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide.
Garlic and garlic extracts, through their antioxidant activities, have been reported to provide protection against free radical damage in the body. This study investigated antioxidant properties of garlic compounds representing the four main chemical classes, alliin, allyl cysteine, allyl disulfide, and allicin, prepared by chemical synthesis or purification. Alliin scavenged superoxide, while allyl cysteine and allyl disulfide did not react with superoxide. Allicin suppressed the formation of superoxide by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, probably via a thiol exchange mechanism. Alliin, allyl cysteine, and allyl disulfide all scavenged hydroxyl radicals; the rate constants calculated based on deoxyribose competitive assay were 1.4-1.7 x 10(10), 2.1-2.2 x 10(9), and 0.7-1.5 x 10(10) M (1) second(1), respectively. Contrary to previous reports, allicin did not exhibit hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in this study. Alliin, allicin, and allyl cysteine did not prevent induced microsomal lipid peroxidation, but both alliin and allyl cysteine were hydroxyl scavengers, and allyl disulfide was a lipid peroxidation terminator. In summary, our findings indicated that allyl disulfide, alliin, allicin, and allyl cysteine exhibit different patterns of antioxidant activities as protective compounds against free radical damage.20”
Note: Edit of Jun 12, 2011 – Please note the role of bile in the alkalizing process and the role of the liver in toxin removal:
Please also become familiar with the following video presentations (no product endorsement or promotion by this site; educational purposes only):
[“Gallstones, Liver, Gallbla…” The YouTube account associated with this video has been terminated due to multiple third-party notifications of copyright infringement.- 12/13/15]
The important question to be answered at this time is whether or not the application of such “hydroxyl scavengers” can suppress the growth rate within the culture. In the interest of brevity, I will report the results of the testing underway in a condensed fashion. This is a classic case where a set of photograph reveals more than can be written about under the circumstances. If additional time permits in the future, this discussion can be continued.
PHOTOGRAPHS – HYDROXYL RADICAL SCAVENGER TRIALS
A comparison of culture trials with and without antioxidants added. On the right side is a white wine culture medium with the filament stage (final stage) of the pathogenic form introduced. In addition, iron sulfate and hydrogen peroxide has been added. The growth of the culture (bacterial-like forms) in the culture on the right side is evident. Elapsed period approximately 24 hrs. On the left side are the same conditions as those on the right, except for the addition of three hydroxyl radical scavengers, as identified through a literature search. Vitamin C, glycerol (glycerin) and sodium citrate has been added to the culture preparation on the left side. Sodium citrate is strongly alkaline. No such rapid or extension of the bacterial-like growth has occurred in this trial. The antioxidant dosages used can be described at a later time, although in general repeated doses at regular intervals were required, and they were substantial relative to the mass of the entire culture. Once the growth reaction is in full progress, it appears difficult if not impossible to arrest. For any success in inhibiting growth, the antioxidants were required to be introduced at the same time that Fenton’s reaction is commenced, i.e., before the growth develops.
A trial culture similar to that described in the photograph set to the left, with the exception that more time has elapsed. Several days have elapsed with the growth of the culture that is shown here (right side). There is no claim whatsoever that no growth of any kind occurs in the antioxidant trial (left culture dish); only that the growth of the culture does appear to be inhibited with the addition of these specific antioxidants. Determination of growth of any kind can only be determined at the microscopic level at sufficient magnification (~10,000x). It should also be stated that this represents the early stage of growth development (bacterial-like forms only) and that inhibition trials at the filament stage may represent an entirely different set of conditions.
Another example of unrestrained growth of the culture without antioxidants. This culture differs from the above in that it uses a transfer from a filament culture that has been subjected to an alkali and heat, as described in earlier reports. The original source material is therefore presumed to in a “dormant” stage, and is primarily composed of the bacterial-like forms as opposed to the filament stage.
This culture is again the same as on the left side of this set of photographs, with the exception of the addition of the three antioxidants mentioned. Each antioxidant alone appears to have some inhibitory effect, however the combination of all three antioxidants appears to be the most successful in suppressing growth. Additional extensive research is required to clarify the numerous variables of chemistry and metabolism that are in effect.
An example of unrestrained growth at approx 300x. This magnification is sufficient to reveal only the gross structure of culture development. There is, however, a unique structural aspect that is characteristic of the growth than can be established with sufficient observation.
The unrestrained growth of the culture at 10,000x. This high level magnification is required to uniquely identify the bacterial-like forms that are the subject of this and many previous reports. This photograph reveals primarily the pleomorphic form (mycoplasma-like) however the chlamydia-like form is also evident upon sufficient observation.
Another example of unrestrained growth of the culture, not subjected to the three antioxidants. Magnification approx. 10,000x.
An example of the growth that has been affected by or apparently restrained with the presence of the three hydroxyl scavengers mentioned : Vitamin C, glycerol and sodium citrate. Magnification approx. 300x. The antioxidants appear to create somewhat of a “precipitate” form and to alter or destroy the general structural integrity of the majority of the bacterial-like colonies. Again, absolutely no claim of termination of the bacterial-like forms is stated here; it does appear, that growth has been suppressed to some degree.
An example of the restrained or altered growth with the addition of the hydroxyl radical scavengers at high magnification, approx, 10,000x. This photograph is appropriately compared with the one that is immediately above. Alteration to a precipitate like form reduces the level of detail at this high magnification. Evidence of extensive growth of the bacterial-like structures is not readily apparent.
Another example of the altered or restrained growth at high magnification (~10,000x). Also appropriately compared with the two photographs immediately above.
In summary, the discovery aspect of this paper identifies certain biological and chemical conditions that appear to be highly favorable to the growth of the bacterial-like organism(s) that are found to be in direct association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition. These chemical conditions include an acidic environment and the existence of the hydroxyl (OH neutral) free radical. When these conditions are met and various oxidizers are introduced into the culture, the growth is rapid and extensive at the bacterial-like level. The bacterial-like stage of growth represents the earlier stage in the development of the organism(s), and the culminating stage manifests as the filament form.
With respect to the proposal aspect of this paper, it is suggested that the state of acidity and alkalinity within the culture (or the body) be considered as a potential significant factor that is expected to affect the growth rate of the organism(s). It is established that growth of the organism(s) is favorable within an acidic environment, and there is strong evidence that an alkaline environment is suppressive to this growth. It is suggested that the benefits of an alkalizing diet and foodstuffs be evaluated with the appropriate health professionals, and that the extent of the acid-alkaline influence be thoroughly evaluated. A shift toward a more alkaline diet is not a trivial affair, and it is at odds with many of the dietary conventions of our generation.
Secondly, on the proposal aspect, it is suggested that the detrimental influences of free radicals and oxidation be researched thoroughly by all parties concerned. There is a particular interest in the hydroxyl free radical that has emerged from the current studies. It is also suggested that the benefits and effects of antioxidants be evaluated, both with respect to the particular conditions under examination here as well as with respect to general health. Again, health professionals of choice are to be consulted in any decisions that are to be made.
It is of interest that the proposals from this work are in accordance with much of the general consensus that has emerged with respect to improved health over the past decades. It is also apparent that the contemporary lifestyles and the environmental conditions that we find ourselves immersed in are, in many ways, in strong opposition to these guidelines of health. It is difficult to argue with the general benefits of a more alkaline diet and with the evidence that has emerged over decades with respect to free radical damage. It is true, however, that current habits of many of us are not in general accord with these very same principles and as a consequence contemporary society is often subject to its detriments.
It is quite obvious that the work before us is immense. As is common, many questions have emerged with any new findings. It should be apparent by now that such problems are not going to fix themselves or go away, and the sooner that we recognize the stakes of health and life that are at play, the sooner that we may prosper in that same health and good life. Once again, I call for your recognition of the seriousness of the issues, and for your participation in resolving them. Thank you.
THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS Clifford E Carnicom
May 11 2005
A case can be made that the salt levels in our soils may be increasing from the deposition of atmospheric aerosol reactive metal salts over time1. Numerous measurements of soil samples in the northern New Mexico region are showing relatively high levels of conductivity. Conductivity is a direct measure of the concentration of ions in solution. Reactive metal hydroxide salt forms, such as those that have now been documented at unexpectedly high levels in both the atmosphere and rainwater2, are exactly the type of salt forms which will increase the conductivity (ion concentration) of the soil as well. The importance of this finding is that increased salt levels in the soils will lead to stress on the plant life, and if they are high enough, they will lead to reduced growth or eventual death of many species. The issues of soil salinity and salinity stress are quite serious, and they show that the effect of aerosol operations underway must be considered in their totality; with recent studies alone the impact upon the atmosphere, the water and the soils of this planet is increasingly apparent.3,4
Piñon Pine Die-Off
Santa Fe Region, New Mexico
A continuous appeal for public pressure upon both international environmental and governmental agencies for determination of the health of the planet as it is affected by the aerosol operations is established. The unfortunate reality is that such groups in this country have failed to responsibly respond to public request, and most of the responses that have been made are branded with dishonesty and disingenousness. It is now required that not only should the environmental reporting occur in haste, but that such reports must be accompanied by independent audits that have no vested interest in the outcome of the results. It is a sad fact that many of the United States governmental agencies and authorities can no longer be trusted to be acting in the interest of the public welfare. Such patterns became evident at the onset of the aerosol operations that were commenced without public involvement or consent.
View of Santa Fe New Mexico – April 19, 2005
(Ideal Weather Conditions)
The initial particulars of the current report are as follows
The best reference for expected conductivity levels in the soil on a nationwide basis found this far is a map issued by the Federal Communications Commission5. This effort was published in 1954 on a nationwide basis, as the conductivity of soils is a significant factor in AM radio propagation. Although general, the source nevertheless represents a major national effort that apparently has not been duplicated since. Conductivity maps and profiles are important as they are one of the best indicators of salt levels that are expected in the soil. There are numerous sources6,7,8,9 that describe the salt tolerances of the native flora, and there is a clear relationship between increased salt levels and decreased productivity of the soil. Increased salts in general, are certainly detrimental (and potentially fatal) to many plant species.
The current report is also precipitated in part by direct local observation. The first is the change that has been noticed in local grasslands in the rather severe and hostile environments of the drier southwest. A particular large field has been under observation since the aerosol operations began en masse near the beginning of 1999. This particular field at that time produced grass sufficient to support a couple of horses during the growing season without difficulty, and any changes reported are not a result of overgrazing. Over the years, it has been quietly observed that the grass production has steadily and continuously declined. It has been supposed that the primary cause of this decline has been the drought that affected this area for up to five years. However, as time progressed, it became evident that periods of increased rain did nothing to mitigate the changes. If a large storm or storms were to arrive at an optimum time for growth, the effect was increasingly minimal. It has now progressed to the point where even in the face of record levels of moisture during this last winter and spring, grass simply no longer will grow in that field. It has become a field of weeds (i.e., “an otherwise desirable plant in an undesirable location”) and the livestock has not been able to receive sustenance there for several years now.
Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico
Invasive Species Now Dominate the Area – Grasses Are No Longer Supported
The second observation considers a major die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area. This die-off is massive and it continues to present a major fire threat to this area. Many may recall the impact of the Los Alamos fire in this area several years ago, which came to national prominence due to the proximity of the National Laboratory. The community report that is circulated states that the past drought “led to stress” and that this stress in turn has allowed the infestation of a bark beetle that eventually has led to current devastation of the pinyon pine species. My interest in this report is to consider a second look at the so-called “stress factors” that may be at play.
Piñon Pine Die-Off Santa Fe Region, New Mexico April 2005
It has already been reported that the expected effect from the introduced aerosols is to heat up the lower atmosphere10, and not to cool it as many have attempted to promote under the guise of a secret but benevolent motive. Under the best of circumstances it can only be determined that the aerosols will aggravate the drought and warming problems, if not actually induce these very conditions. Reduced forage productivity is already expected in part from the specific heat and dessication properties of the aerosols.
Compounding the problem, we must now consider the effects of aerosols that eventually accumulate in salt forms within the soil from precipitation and gravity. This paper considers the effect of precipitation alone. Thirteen soil samples from widely varying habitats in the Santa Fe region have been investigated for conductivity results. These results indicate that seven of the thirteen samples indicate potential cases of salinity stress in the soil that may already be adversely affecting productivity. If proximity to vegetation is considered in the case of the pinyon die-off, (to be discussed in more detail), then six out of seven samples indicate the possibility of salinity stress. It is to be considered, therefore, that a harmful salinity problem with the soils may already be in place. The tests indicated here are only of preliminary nature, and they serve the purpose of simply raising the issue of salinity stress within our soils as a result of the aerosol campaign. This complication is in addition to the drought and heat injuries that have already been substantiated. The alarming alkaline results of numerous pH tests conducted by citizens across the country and presented on this site should also be recalled as the grander environmental alteration is assessed.
On a more ominous note, if the trends of this study are verified and continue to occur, it can be expected that the situation may deteriorate much further than is already indicated . The conifers and deciduous trees are generally much less salt tolerant than the grasses. The current work indicates that coniferous regions may already be subject to more salinity than they may be able to handle in the future. The recent large scale die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area may only be a harbinger of drastic changes in the future vitality of the forage. It would seem as though if international and national environmental organizations were truly concerned and heeded the signs of planetary change, then they would openly and publicly begin the investigation into the effects of the aerosol operations upon our air, our water, and soil -and all life upon this planet. The quickest way to remedy the problem, during the “investigation” period is to terminate or to force a moratorium upon the aerosol program.
Secondary particulars of this report:
Complete and proper testing of soil conductivity will require adequately funded laboratory resources and analysis. The current work attempts to assess conditions within the range of methods and resources available to this researcher. There appear to be two primary methods of soil conductivity analysis. The first of these uses a saturated paste method, and the second sample of soil that is resident within water, often at a ratio of approximately five to one. The EC (Electrical Conductivity) paste method will be preferred should the proper means ever become available. This paper uses the solution technique. The expected measurement scale of results is quite different for each method, and attention must be paid to the units of the results.
The method chosen has been to place a soil sample approximately 1cm deep within a clean glass jar (radius 4cm) and to cover it with distilled water to a depth of approximately 7cm. A conductivity reading is taken immediately after the mixing of the sample with the water with a calibrated conductivity meter that measures in uS. The conductivity of the solution is then measured with respect to time elapsed, usually involving a period of approximately 4 to 7 days. It has been found that conductivity in all cases increases considerably with this elapse of time, and it is difficult to reach any other conclusion than that a significant ion leaching condition is occurring. It is expected that the slow leaching of salts within the soil is the most likely producer of this effect. In the references found on soil conductivity testing, this phenomenon appears to be more of an anomaly than a universal result. The effect is significant and has been found to result in increases in conductivity levels on the order of up to 15 times the initial reading given sufficient time. The mixture always will reach a maximum conductivity level after which the elapse of time will not change the result; these are the readings accepted for reference in this study. This maximum has been reached within a week of collecting the sample in all cases. This observation alone may merit further study.
A broad range of local ecosystems have been investigated, including lower grasslands (~6500 ft. elev), pinyon pine and juniper forests (~6800 -7500ft.), ponderosa pine forests (~8000ft), and the upper portions of the local mountain range (10,500ft.). The FCC conductivity map has been examined at the highest resolution available to find the expected range of conductivity values for this region. These values range from 20uS in the mountain forested areas, to 40uS for the northwest region of Santa Fe, to 150uS in the lower plain areas to the south of Santa Fe. The maximum conductivity values shown on the conductivity map is 300uS. In general, the higher the conductivity level (i.e, salt level), the more difficult it becomes to support the higher forms of plant life. In general, the grasses will be found to be generally more salt tolerant, and deciduous tree forms relatively salt intolerant. Numerous references have been consulted to establish the expected salt tolerance levels for the variety of plant species in the southwest and for plant types in general across the country and world. There are some difficulties that emerge in equating measurements of the solution and paste methods; efforts have been made to bridge that gap in a conservative fashion.
The lowest initial reading in the soil samples taken is 11uS. The highest initial reading is 130uS. The highest reading of all samples, given sufficient time for ion leaching to occur, is 424uS. The best estimate that can be achieved at this time is that considering all samples taken in all locations, conductivity estimates are on the order of approximately 3 times greater than is expected. It is to be recalled that any increase in salinity levels of air, moisture and soil is to be taken seriously as salts will generally increase and accumulate in soils over time. They will be expected at some level to demonstrate interference with the vitality of the plant. This report makes the argument that such processes may already be in place.
The (former) grassland tests indicate that levels of conductivity may already be high enough to explain in part the failure of grasses to grow, even when blessed with sufficient or abnormally high rainfall. It may be that rainfall itself is no longer as beneficial as we would like to believe, especially as reactive metal hydroxide salts now seem to be a regular source of pollution within the rain or snow.
The high mountain soil test (not water) at this point has come out favorably. In addition, tests conducted some distance away from dominant vegetation such pinyon or juniper species has raises no undue concern.
The mid-level mountain test in the Ponderosa zone (~8000ft.) is not so favorable and does indicate a potential problem that could loom in our future. The extension of the pinyon pine die-off into the higher elevations of this area, to include ponderosa or other conifers at higher elevations, will be truly devastating to this region should it occur. Moisture, the composition of that moisture, and salts in the soil must all be considered as additional “stress factors” that may lead to very serious problems in our future.
The pinyon pine die-off region has been especially interesting to study, with some unanticipated results along the way. There remains much work to be done should sufficient interest and care arise. One of the surprising results that has been found is that there is tremendous variation in conductivity with respect to the distance from the bole, or trunk of the tree. Values of conductivity away from the vegetation, in the open, do not pose any special concern that I can determine at this time. Close to the tree itself, however, the results are dramatically different. Conductivity readings (and correspondingly, ion concentrations) seem especially high. This result was found after unexplained variations within the die-off region was occurring. Proximity to the trees in measurement does appear to be the primary factor that explains this variation.
Research was conducted to establish if distance from the vegetation is a known, common, important and expected factor within soil measurements. The answer appears to be no. It has been difficult thus far to find many references to this finding that is being discussed. One paper11 has been found that describes that such a phenomenon can occur, but the audience for the paper appears to be relatively restricted. The second paper12 does not refer to variation with respect to distance, but does explain the majority of conductivity variation from calcium and magnesium salt forms.
This question that is being asked here may be much more than academic. The conductivity levels in the immediate vicinity of the now dead trees appears to be unexpectedly high. Calcium and magnesium components are two of the primary ionic salt forms that now are being identified at high levels in rainwater tests. If ionic exchange and ion concentration processes are taking place in the roots and soil in the vicinity of the trees, it seems conceivable that a process of soil saline concentration and accumulation is occurring. If the levels are high enough, and the testing results at hand indicate that they are, then it is quite possible that saline stress is an active process – here and now. The sooner that the comprehensive nature of the die-off of the pinyon pine is established, the greater the chance that extensive and catastrophic larger scale events can be averted in the future.
There is no claim here that saline stress is the cause of all of our woes in the plant world. This paper, however, does raise some questions that deserve fair consideration with respect to the massive global effects from the aerosol operations. There is no doubt that global effects are occurring, and many of them have already been, and they continue to be, measured. It is only by being fair and honest with ourselves that we will find these truths. I continue to believe that infinite time is not a luxury you can afford to have at this point. You shall have to answer the question of “ownership” for the air that you breathe, the water that you drink, and for the life and the plants that provide your food. You will need to weigh that answer against that provided by any nation, government, agency, corporation or any other claimed source of power. You then will need to act accordingly.
CONDUCTIVITY: The Air, The Water, and The Land Clifford E Carnicom
April 15, 2005
A rainfall laboratory test recently received from a rural location in the Midwestern United States has refocused attention on the electrolytic, ionic and conductive properties of environmental samples in connection with the aerosol operations. These “interesting characteristics” of solids in our atmosphere have a more direct and down to earth impact as their nature is better understood. This is nothing less than the changing of the air, the water and the soil of this planet. All life is eventually to be affected as it continues.
A laboratory report has been received that documents unusually high levels of calcium and potassium within a rain sample.1 Previous work has demonstrated unexpected levels of barium and magnesium. The continuous presence of easily ionizable salts at higher concentrations within atmospheric samples has many ramifications upon the environment. A brief introduction to the severe health impact of this category of particulates has also been made on this site. Current work is now dedicated to the impact that these materials are having upon not only upon the atmosphere, but upon the water and soil as well. All inhabitants of this planet will eventually confront, voluntarily or not, the consequences of the actions that are being allowed to degrade the viability and habitability of our home.
The burden of testing for the problems underway does not fall upon any private citizen, as the resources are not available to support it. Nevertheless, testing and analysis does continue in whatever way is possible. Accountability must eventually fall to those public servants and agencies entrusted with protection of the general welfare and environment. It should not be assumed that there is infinite time available to ponder the strategies of improvement and the solutions for remedy. We shall all bear the final price for any condonement of what has been allowed to pass.
Now, for the more immediate particulars:
A series of conductivity tests have been conducted with recent heavy snowfall samples collected in New Mexico and Arizona. Conductivity is a means to measure the ionic concentration within a solution. These tests have been performed with the use of a calibrated conductivity meter in conjunction with calibrated seawater solutions. A series of electrolysis tests have also been completed with these same samples and calibrated solutions.
These tests demonstrate conclusively the presence of reactive metal hydroxides (salts) in concentrations sufficient to induce visible electrolysis in all recent snowfall samples encountered2.
Precipitates result if reactive electrodes are used; air filtration tests have produced these same results in even more dramatic fashion from the solids that have been collected. Highly significant electrolytic reactions occur in the case when the solid materials from the atmosphere are concentrated and then placed into solution. Rainfall is expected to be one of the purest forms of water available, especially in the rural and high mountain sites that have been visited. Rainfall from such “clean” environments is not expected to support electrolysis is any significant fashion3, and conductivity is expected to be on the order of 4-10uS4. Current conductivity readings are in the range of approximately 15 to 25uS. These values may not appear to be extraordinarily large, however any increase in salt content, especially with the use of remote samples, will need to be considered with respect to the cumulative effect upon the land. These results do indicate an increase in conductivity on the order of 2-3 times, and the effects of increased salinity on plant life will merit further discussion.
Beyond the indicated increase in conductivity levels of sampled precipitation, there are two additional important results from the current study. The first is the ability to make an analytic estimate of the concentration of ionic salts within the regional atmosphere. The results do appear to be potentially significant from an air quality perspective and with respect to the enforcement (or lack thereof) of existing standards. The second is the introduction of the principle of “ohmic heating”, which in this case allows for increased conductivity of the atmosphere as a result of an introduced current.
First, with respect to estimated concentrations of ionic salt forms in the atmosphere, the principle is as follows. The methods demonstrate that our focus is upon reactive metal hydroxide forms (barium hydroxide, for example). Conductivity is proportional to ionic concentration. Although a conductivity meter is especially useful over a wide range of concentrations, special care is required when dealing with the weak saline forms of precipitation as they now exist. It has been found that current flow as measured by a sensitive ammeter (µamps) appears to be useful in assessing the conductivity of the weak saline solution. The results have been confirmed and duplicated with the use of the calibrated conductivity meter. The use of on ohm meter to measure resistance is found from both experience and from the literature to not be reliable without much caution, due to complications of heating and/or polarization. Weak saline solutions appear to have their own interesting characteristics with respect to introduced currents, and this topic will come to the forefront when ohmic heating is discussed.
A series of weak sea saltwater solutions have been carefully prepared for use in calibrating both the conductivity meter and the ammeter. These solutions are in strengths of 0.56%, 1.51% and 3.01% respectively. Many tests have also been completed with refined water samples as well as seawater equivalents. Conductivity is proportional to concentration levels, especially as it has been bracketed with a variety of solutions in the range of expected measurements. Measurements currently estimate the saline concentration of the precipitation samples at approximately 0.041%. Salt concentrations in any amount are extremely influential to conductivity.
Assuming an equivalency in density of the precipitation salts to sea salts, this results in an expected concentration level of approximately 15 milligrams per liter. For comparison purposes, rainwater in Poker Flats, Alaska is reported as approximately 1mg/liter for all dissolved ions; the contribution from reactive metal compounds is a small fraction of that total. Highly polluted rain over Los Angeles CA is reported at approximately 4mg/liter, with approximately 1mg/liter composed of the reactive metals.5 Simulated rainfall samples report concentration levels of approximately 4 and 21 mg/liter respectively, presumed to reflect reasonably clean and polluted samples respectively6. In all cases cited, the contribution from reactive metal ions is quite small relative to the whole, and sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions are the largest contributors to the pollutants. Testing here indicates the composition of the precipitate pollutants may be biased toward the reactive metal ion concentrations.
The next objective is to translate the measured and estimated concentration level to an equivalent density, or particulate count, within the atmosphere. This method is based upon saturation levels for moisture within the atmosphere. Air at a given temperature can only hold so much water.
From the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, the saturation density is given as:7
saturation density = 216.68 * (ew / (Cv * T) )
where ew is the saturation vapor pressure in millibars, T is temperature in Kelvin, and Cv is the compressibility factor. Cv is 1.0000 to the level of precision required.
From Saucier8, the saturation vapor pressure in millibars with respect to water is estimated as:
es = 6.11 * 10(a*t)/(t+b)
where a = 7.5 b = 237.3
and t is degrees Centigrade.
Therefore, the saturation density can be stated as:
density (gms /m3) = [ 216.68 * es / K
and the density in gms / m3 of salt particulate in the air can be estimated as:
gms / m3 = Conductivity Estimate of Solids (in gms per liter) * (RH% / 100) * Saturation Density * 1E-3
and in µgms:
µgms = gms / m3 * 1E6
and as an example, if the solid density is .015 gms / liter and the temperature is 15 deg centigrade and humidity is 50%, the estimate of particulate concentration from the salts is 96µgms / m3. This concentration will vary directly with altitude (temperature) and humidity levels.
The estimates show that at ground levels and temperatures it is quite possible that the EPA air quality standards for particulate matter are no longer being met. This determination will also depend on the size of the particles in question, as EPA standards vary according to size (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively). All analyses indicate that the size of the aerosols under examination are sub-micron, and if so, this makes the problem more acute. Air quality standards for comparison to various scenarios are available9 to examine the relationship that has been developed. Unfortunately, the failures of United States government agencies now require the independent audit of EPA data and presentation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is especially culpable in this regard, and the enforcement of existing standards is a serious topic of controversy.
Finally, let us introduce the subject of ohmic heating. The behavior of electric currents within weak saline solutions has many points of interest. During the testing for this report, it was observed that the conductivity of weak saline solutions noticeably increased over time when these solutions were subjected to a weak electric current. It appears that the most likely source of this conductivity is a phenomenon known as ohmic heating. In plasma physics, ohmic heating is the energy imparted to charged particles as they respond to an electric field and make collisions with other particles. A classic definition would be the heating that results from the flow of current through a medium with electrical resistance. Please recall the difficulty of using an ohmmeter to measure conductivity in a solution; this difficulty was realized in the trials of this report.
Metals are known to increase their resistance with the introduction of an electric current. As the metal becomes hotter, resistance increases and conductivity decreases. Salt water and plasmas are quite interesting in that the opposite effect occurs. The conductivity of salt water increases when temperature increases. The same effect occurs within a plasma; an increase in temperature will result in a decrease of the resistance.10, i.e, the conductivity increases. Introduction of an electric current into the plasma, or salt water for that matter, will increase the temperature and therefore the conductivity will also increase. This is in opposition to our normal experience with metals and conductors.
In the past, conductivity studies have focused on the ability of the reactive metals to lose ions through the photoionization process. This remains a highly significant aspect of the aerosol research.
The importance of this study is that a second factor has now been introduced into the conductivity equation, and that is the introduction of electric current itself into the plasma state. This research, through direct observation and analysis, has inadvertently turned attention once again to the HAARP facility, where ohmic heating is stated within the Eastlund patent to be a direct contributor to atmospheric conductivity increase. All evidence indicates that this plasma is saline based, which further propagates the hypothesis of increased conductivity in the atmosphere with the introduction of electric current, in addition to that provided by photoionization.
A future presentation will examine the changes in the conductivity of our soil, in addition to that of our air and water.
A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received. This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.
It may be supposed that higher levels of such minerals in our atmosphere pose no immediate threat or concern; an examination of the physical processes likely to take place, however, shows exactly the opposite to be the case. A search of the literature commonly reveals that an excess of positive ions in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health. 2,3,4,5
Examination of the aerosol issue has, almost from the beginning, focused on the important properties of the metallic elements of Groups I and II of the periodic table. The attention has arisen because of the ease by which such elements are ionized. This ionization will take place in the majority of cases quite readily with the energy available from ultra-violet light and, in some cases, from visible light alone. It will be found6 that calcium and potassium, with a special emphasis upon potassium, are easily ionized with the energy available from either visible or ultra-violet sunlight.
A partial list of the effects of ion disturbances upon human health include, as a minimum, the following:
1. Impairment of the body’s ability to absorb oxygen, leading to headaches, asthma attacks, reduced circulation in the brain and emotional irritability.
2. The development of allergies. Ionized air is associated with the following conditions : allergic bronchitis, allergic sinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic respiratory tract allergies. It may also be recalled7 that “chronic lower respiratory disease” now ranks as the third leading cause of death in this country, and that it continues to climb in this ranking.
3. High levels of serotonin in the bloodstream, triggered by excessive numbers of positive ions in the environment.
4. A reduction in the body’s ability to filter airborne contaminants from lung tissue.
Direct research from this site alone now documents unexpected levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium and barium. A common thread between all of these elements is the ease of ionization that characterizes Group I and Group II elements of the periodic table. Magnesium oxide is also of value as a dispersal agent8 in aerosol operations. The existence of barium levels is of special concern because of the high toxicity of water soluble forms. Candidates for further and future testing, include strontium, aluminum and titanium. The acquisition of an ion counter will be a valuable instrument to further this research; if anyone is in a position to provide or loan this device please feel free to contact me.
The importance of ionization with respect to the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations has been extensively discussed and documented on this site.
The laboratory report received establishes an even deeper basis for further atmospheric and rainwater testing. More importantly, the burden and obligation of governmental and public agencies to meet citizen demand for reestablishing the health of our atmosphere and planet remain as strong as ever. The chronic failure of adequate response by these same public agencies requires that this accountability be accompanied by independent, non-vested verification. It is hoped that the citizens will continue to exert this pressure for the public welfare.
BARIUM TESTS ARE POSITIVE
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, New Mexico
May 24 2004
A series of qualitative chemical tests and deductions now confirm without doubt the presence of significant amounts of barium within atmospheric samples. Citizens may now begin the process of collecting the sample materials for formal submission to public environmental agencies and private labs for identification. The testing process can be done at modest expense and the results from laboratory analysis can now be qualitatively and independently verified without great difficulty. Any testing service employed will need to be able to demonstrate no vested interest in the outcome of the results, accuracy of method, and the willingness to have the testing process independently monitored.
The material under analysis has been collected by a plate ionizing filter; it may also be collected with conventional fiber filtration over a longer period of time. HEPA filter collection and subsequent electrolysis of the filter material placed in distilled water has also proven successful. Extended time periods may be required to collect a sufficient volume of material for electrolytic processing and external testing preferences. Readers are referred to previous articles1,2 for two methods of collection. The use of electrolysis is significant in producing a final compound for testing purposes. The solid materials (powder/ crystals) collected by the plate ionizing filter, assuming they satisfy the test procedures described on this page, will be sufficient for laboratory analysis. Qualitative chemical tests and flame tests positively establish the significant presence of barium compounds within the atmospheric sample.
Citizens with sufficient environmental concern are encouraged to begin this process of sample collection and identification, along with the documentation of the responses of both public and private environmental services.
The process of collection and analysis is summarized as follows:
1. Solid materials are collected with the use of a plate ionizing filter or fiber based filters as described previously.1,2
2. The material can be subjected to low power microscopic viewing to verify similarity of material form before proceeding. The powder/crystal material under collection has a tan, beige or gray cast to it. The presence of fibrous materials within the sample is not the focus of this report, and further analysis of those materials may occur at a later time.
3. The solid powder/crystal material that is the subject of this report will be found to dissolve easily within distilled water. Extremely small samples have been used for all tests as the material requires time and effort to collect in sufficient quantity. For testing purposes, samples of a fraction of a gram have been dissolved within a few milliliters of distilled water.
4. Solutions of higher concentrations, e.g., 1 part solid to 3 parts water will be found to be strongly alkaline. This indicates the presence of a base and hydroxide ions. A pH value of 9 was recorded in the test that is the subject of this report.
5. A weak solution (fraction of a gram to 40ml water) will be found to permit significant electrolysis reactions. A variety of electrodes have been used to verify the chemical results, including aluminum, iron, copper, silver and graphite electrodes. The work at this point establishes the presence of a soluble metallic hydroxide form in solution.
6. Chromatography experiments and comparative analysis allows us to conclude that the atomic mass of the metallic cation under examination is greater than that of copper, or greater than 63.5 atomic mass units.3 Cations under reasonable consideration4 therefore include:
7. The results of electrolysis with graphite electrodes permits us to conclude that a reactive metal is a component5 of the metallic hydroxide under examination.
8. The electrochemical series and the half-reaction electrode potentials are therefore consulted6,7 to establish a list of reasonable candidates for the cation of the metallic salt which disassociates in solution to permit electrolysis. The list of candidate cations, with the condition of hydroxide formation included, is now reduced to:
Ba+2, Sr+2, Rb+ and Cs+ with oxidation potentials of 2.91, 2.90, 2.98 and 3.03 volts respectively.
It is noticed that this group is now closely confined within the periodic table, and that chemical properties of these elements are in many ways shared. It is also instructive to note the remarkable similiarity in the work functions of these elements, which is an expression of the ionization capability of the element.
9. Each of these cations must form a soluble hydroxide. Solubility tables8 indicate that these conditions are satisified by each of the hydroxide forms: Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, RbOH and CsOH.
10. Practical levels of worldwide production of the elements are helpful to consider9. Barium and strontium both are produced at high tonnage levels worldwide, rubidium and cesium are inconsequential in production. Barium production is stated at 6 million tons per year, strontium at 137,000 tons, cesium at 20 tons and rubidium in such low levels as to not be available. Common hydroxide forms are also to be considered in this analysis. This reduces the candidate cation list to strontium and barium, whereupon additional conditions of qualitative testing are to be imposed.
11. The material in solution must produce a cation and a hydroxide ion in solution. Precipitate tests are conducted with carbonate, oxalate and sulfate compounds for the existence of barium or strontium ions, using a combination of the unknown with sodium carbonate, sodium oxalate and copper sulfate10. The material in question forms a precipitate under all three conditions. The consideration of barium hydroxide and strontium hydroxide continues to be valid under under these results.
12. The precipitate formed with the use of copper sulfate is hypothesized to be barium sulfate. The precipitate formed under electrolysis is also hypothesized to be a barium sulphate compound. Solubility tests are necessary to test this hypothesis. The precipitate and the compound formed from electrolysis pass the solubility tests when subjected to water, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and ethanol. The identification of barium sulphate remains valid. The sulfate precipitate fails the solubility test for strontium sulfate, as strontium sulfate is soluble in hydrochloric acid. The sulphate compound that has been formed by both displacement and electrolysis is highly insoluble, and is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
13. The solubility test for barium carbonate should also be verified. The carbonate precipitate is soluble in hydrochloric acid and passes this test. The identification of barium compounds in the analysis remains valid. No solubility tests for barium oxalate are specified11.
14. The next test which is to be conducted is the flame test. Barium burns yellow-green under the flame test12,13. A sample of the electrolysis compound, identified as barium sulphate, is subjected to a flame test using a nichrome wire. The compound is observed to burn with a yellow-green color. The identification of barium compounds within the analysis is valid under all conditions and circumstances examined.
15. The final test is a viewing of the spectrum of the flame test with a calibrated spectroscope and an optical spectroscope. Dominant green and yellow emission spectral lines are measured at approximately 515 (wider line, boundary line) and 587 nanometers (narrow and distinct), they are confirmed with the optical spectroscope, and they correspond to the green and yellow wavelengths specified for the flame test. A secondary wide line in the green portion of the spectrum borders at approximately 560nm. For comparison purposes, the spectrum of barium chloride and barium hydroxide test salts in solution appears and measures identically within the green portion of the spectrum. The identification of barium compounds within the analysis remains valid under all conditions and examined and tests conducted.
The most reasonable hypothesis at this point is that the original compound is a barium oxide form. This compound readily combines with water to form barium hydroxide. The ionizing plate filter and the fiber filter both appear to be successful at accumulating the solid form of this metallic salt. Solubility, pH, precipitation, chromatography, electrode, electrolysis, flame, spectroscopy and spectroscopy comparison tests all support the conclusion within this report that significant levels of barium compounds have been verified to exist and are now to be examined in the atmospheric sampling process. This report corroborates, at an elevated level, the previous research that is available on this site.
This page is subject to revision.
1. Clifford E Carnicom, Electrolysis and Barium, (./electrolysis-barium/), May 27, 2002
2. Carnicom, Sub-Micron Particulates Isolated, (./sub-micron-particulates-isolated/), Apr 26, 2004
3. Frank Eshelman, Ph.D., MicroChem Manual (Frank Eschelman, www.microchemkits.com, 2003), 1-4, 76.
4. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook (Addison-Wesley, 1997), 130.
5. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw-Hill, 2003), 125.
6. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 8-21 to 8-31.
7. Fred C. Hess, Chemistry Made Simple, (Doubleday, 1984), 89, 91.
8. Lide, 4-37 to 4-96.
9. John Emsley, The Elements, (Clarendon Press, 1998), 30-31, 46-47, 176-177, 196-197.
10. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, The Identification of Ions, (http://dwb.unl.edu/Chemistry/LABS/LABS10.html)
11. Lide, 4-44.
12. Hunt, 152-153.
13. Infoplease Encyclopedia, Flame Test, (http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0818856.html)
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